Table 2

Prevalence (%) and OR (95% CI) for high behavioural difficulties scores

BoysPrevalenceModel AModel BModel CModel DModel E
Total difficulties, n=5864
 Never14.61.61(1.11 to 2.34)1.51(1.03 to 2.20)1.31(0.88 to 1.95)1.27(0.75 to 2.16)1.29(0.74 to 2.27)
 Not in pregnancy9.6RefRefRefRefRef
 Light6.60.67(0.53 to 0.86)0.82(0.64 to 1.04)0.91(0.71 to 1.17)0.66(0.50 to 0.85)0.77(0.59 to 1.01)
 Moderate10.71.15(0.77 to 1.71)1.19(0.80 to 1.78)1.32(0.87 to 1.99)1.07(0.71 to 1.61)1.10(0.71 to 1.70)
 Heavy/binge15.71.76(1.09 to 2.82)1.40(0.85 to 2.31)1.63(0.99 to 2.68)1.86(1.03 to 3.38)1.63(0.92 to 2.89)
Conduct problems, n=5896
 Never14.81.42(0.98 to 2.07)1.27(0.87 to 1.87)1.18(0.81 to 1.73)1.45(0.87 to 2.41)1.50(0.86 to 2.62)
 Not in pregnancy10.8RefRefRefRefRef
 Light10.00.92(0.74 to 1.15)1.12(0.89 to 1.40)1.16(0.93 to 1.45)0.89(0.70 to 1.14)1.06(0.83 to 1.35)
 Moderate14.71.43(0.99 to 2.07)1.45(0.99 to 2.13)1.59(1.09 to 2.33)1.32(0.87 to 2.00)1.34(0.87 to 2.06)
 Heavy/binge18.11.82(1.14 to 2.89)1.51(0.95 to 2.43)1.69(1.05 to 2.71)1.82(1.00 to 3.30)1.55(0.89 to 2.71)
Hyperactivity, n=5883
 Never15.91.22(0.84 to 1.77)1.15(0.79 to 1.67)1.05(0.71 to 1.57)1.05(0.67 to 1.65)1.11(0.69 to 1.78)
 Not in pregnancy13.4RefRefRefRefRef
 Light10.10.73(0.58 to 0.91)0.86(0.68 to 1.05)0.90(0.72 to 1.12)0.69(0.55 to 0.87)0.81(0.64 to 1.01)
 Moderate12.60.92(0.61 to 1.39)0.98(0.64 to 1.48)1.02(0.68 to 1.54)0.82(0.54 to 1.23)0.87(0.57 to 1.34)
 Heavy/binge19.61.57(1.05 to 2.34)1.35(0.90 to 2.02)1.52(0.99 to 2.31)1.52(0.95 to 2.43)1.43(0.91 to 2.26)
Emotional symptoms, n=5892
 Never13.61.69(1.16 to 2.46)1.65(1.12 to 2.43)1.53(1.03 to 2.27)1.25(0.73 to 2.12)1.25(0.72 to 2.17)
 Not in pregnancy8.5RefRefRefRefRef
 Light7.40.87(0.68 to 1.12)0.97(0.75 to 1.25)1.01(0.78 to 1.33)0.90(0.68 to 1.17)0.95(0.72 to 1.26)
 Moderate9.21.10(0.67 to 1.80)1.18(0.73 to 1.91)1.22(0.74 to 2.01)1.07(0.65 to 1.75)1.17(0.71 to 1.93)
 Heavy/binge15.41.96(1.18 to 3.23)1.81(1.08 to 3.02)1.83(1.10 to 3.06)2.01(1.14 to 3.56)2.02(1.16 to 3.52)
Peer problems, n=5882
 Never10.91.46(0.92 to 2.32)1.37(0.86 to 2.17)1.22(0.77 to 1.91)1.29(0.68 to 2.43)1.20(0.64 to 2.23)
 Not in pregnancy7.7RefRefRefRefRef
 Light6.30.80(0.62 to 1.03)0.89(0.69 to 1.14)0.94(0.73 to 1.21)0.83(0.64 to 1.08)0.88(0.68 to 1.15)
 Moderate5.20.66(0.36 to 1.22)0.65(0.35 to 1.18)0.71(0.38 to 1.33)0.62(0.32 to 1.21)0.62(0.32 to 1.20)
 Heavy/binge5.60.71(0.37 to 1.38)0.59(0.31 to 1.14)0.62(0.31 to 1.23)0.70(0.35 to 1.40)0.59(0.29 to 1.19)
Girls
Total difficulties, n=5586
 Never8.21.36(0.82 to 2.25)1.09(0.64 to 1.87)0.95(0.57 to 1.59)1.23(0.60 to 2.52)1.18(0.54 to 2.58)
 Not in pregnancy6.2RefRefRefRefRef
 Light4.30.69(0.50 to 0.96)0.88(0.62 to 1.24)1.01(0.72 to 1.42)0.67(0.46 to 0.98)0.89(0.60 to 1.32)
 Moderate8.51.42(0.92 to 2.20)1.28(0.82 to 1.99)1.38(0.88 to 2.16)1.35(0.85 to 2.14)1.22(0.74 to 1.99)
 Heavy/binge8.41.39(0.68 to 2.85)0.96(0.45 to 2.04)1.26(0.58 to 2.74)1.15(0.56 to 2.37)1.03(0.47 to 2.27)
Conduct problems, n=5615
 Never11.21.46(0.97 to 2.21)1.17(0.77 to 1.79)1.00(0.64 to 1.59)1.04(0.55 to 1.96)0.86(0.45 to 1.67)
 Not in pregnancy7.9RefRefRefRefRef
 Light6.60.81(0.61 to 1.08)0.99(0.74 to 1.33)1.13(0.84 to 1.51)0.81(0.59 to 1.09)1.00(0.72 to 1.39)
 Moderate9.51.22(0.80 to 1.86)1.09(0.71 to 1.66)1.14(0.75 to 1.73)1.14(0.67 to 1.91)0.97(0.57 to 1.65)
 Heavy/binge13.21.77(1.01 to 3.11)1.32(0.70 to 2.48)1.63(0.86 to 3.07)1.46(0.79 to 2.72)1.30(0.64 to 2.62)
Hyperactivity, n=5602
 Never8.71.16(0.68 to 1.98)1.01(0.58 to 1.75)0.82(0.48 to 1.39)0.72(0.35 to 1.49)0.67(0.32 to 1.39)
 Not in pregnancy7.6RefRefRefRefRef
 Light5.50.71(0.53 to 0.94)0.86(0.65 to 1.15)0.96(0.72 to 1.28)0.70(0.52 to 0.95)0.87(0.64 to 1.18)
 Moderate7.00.92(0.59 to 1.45)0.88(0.56 to 1.39)0.91(0.57 to 1.44)0.84(0.51 to 1.37)0.83(0.50 to 1.38)
 Heavy/binge10.21.38(0.71 to 2.66)1.04(0.54 to 2.02)1.28(0.64 to 2.55)1.19(0.63 to 2.26)1.05(0.55 to 1.97)
Emotional symptoms, n=5611
 Never12.11.29(0.84 to 1.98)1.17(0.76 to 1.79)1.07(0.69 to 1.64)1.28(0.70 to 2.33)1.26(0.68 to 2.32)
 Not in pregnancy9.6RefRefRefRefRef
 Light8.80.91(0.72 to 1.16)1.02(0.80 to 1.29)1.09(0.86 to 1.40)0.93(0.72 to 1.19)1.03(0.79 to 1.34)
 Moderate9.61.00(0.66 to 1.50)0.95(0.64 to 1.42)0.98(0.66 to 1.47)0.96(0.62 to 1.47)0.93(0.61 to 1.42)
 Heavy/binge9.91.01(0.55 to 1.95)0.91(0.48 to 1.72)0.96(0.50 to 1.84)0.92(0.49 to 1.74)0.89(0.46 to 1.72)
Peer problems, n=5599
 Never7.21.39(0.80 to 2.43)1.31(0.75 to 2.31)1.12(0.63 to 1.98)1.48(0.72 to 3.03)1.51(0.72 to 3.19)
 Not in pregnancy5.3RefRefRefRefRef
 Light4.20.78(0.57 to 1.08)0.88(0.63 to 1.22)0.97(0.70 to 1.36)0.79(0.57 to 1.11)0.91(0.64 to 1.29)
 Moderate5.71.07(0.56 to 2.05)1.04(0.54 to 2.01)1.08(0.56 to 2.07)0.98(0.51 to 1.89)1.00(0.52 to 1.91)
 Heavy/binge6.01.13(0.49 to 2.64)0.92(0.39 to 2.14)1.03(0.43 to 2.48)0.99(0.43 to 2.29)0.92(0.40 to 2.12)
  • Model A adjusts for child's age.

  • Model B adjusts for child's age, birth weight, mother's age at time of birth, number of children in the household, mother smoked during pregnancy, pregnancy planned.

  • Model C adjusts for child's age, birth weight, parental income, highest parental educational qualification, highest parental occupation.

  • Model D adjusts for child's age, birth weight, mother's K6 score, parental discipline, child made to follow instructions, mother's parental competence, closeness of relationship between mother and child, mother's current drinking.

  • Model E adjusts for child's age, birth weight, mother's age at time of birth, number of children in the household, mother smoked during pregnancy, pregnancy planned, parental income, highest parental educational qualification, highest parental occupation, mother's K6 score, parental discipline, child made to follow instructions, mother's parental competence, closeness of relationship between mother and child, mother's current drinking.