Table 1

Baseline characteristics and details of follow-up of the sample according to psychological distress at recruitment (n=17205)

CharacteristicsGHQ*=0 (n=10270) %GHQ=1–2 (n=2878) %GHQ=3–7 (n=2772) %GHQ=8–12 (n=1285) %
Baseline characteristics (2002)
Age (years), mean (SD)45.0 (12.3)39.6 (12.4)38.8 (12.2)40.0 (11.7)
Female gender51.757.165.070.0
Income lowest quartile20.227.730.232.4
Born outside Sweden13.114.315.317.4
Education up to 9 years11.811.210.210.3
Sedentary lifestyle11.215.716.921.4
Current daily tobacco smoker14.715.816.519.5
Cannabis use in past year1.
BMI<20 kg/m26.
BMI>30 kg/m28.
Physical illness§ (self-report not on register)11.811.810.812.6
Physical illness§ (register)24.627.930.433.5
Diagnosis of common mental disorder**
Other psychiatric illness**
Person-years follow-up50457.714020.613432.25954.3
Number of incident disability pensioners (DPs)251 (2.4)108 (3.8)141 (5.1)149 (11.6)
Number of incident DPs for mental illness45275279
Number of incident DPs for physical illness206818970
  • * Baseline score on 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) using standard (0011) scoring.

  • Total household income—recoded to quartiles.

  • Body mass index calculated by self-reported height and weight.

  • § Physical illness (self-report not on register), report of physical illness diagnosed by a doctor but not on secondary care register; Physical illness (register), those on secondary care register with any physical illness diagnosis.

  • Pain—self-report of daily pain in neck, back or shoulder.

  • ** From secondary care register—common mental disorders (ICD-10 F32-48); other mental illness, any ICD-10 diagnosis of mental or behavioural disorder except ICD-10 F32-48.