Table 2

Meta-regression models explaining study heterogeneity on the association between income inequality and poor SRH

Variables (number of studies)BivariateMultivariate
Model 1Model 2Model 3
Average population (1000)
 Small: 8–820 (5)ReferentReferentReferentReferent
 Large: 2612–5000 (6)0.0050.0090.57−0.0010.0100.90−0.00190.0050.73−0.0010.0100.91
 Country: 23 700–30 900 (3)0.0880.021<0.0018.0−50.0810.021<0.0010.08840.020<0.0010.0780.022<0.001
 Continuous (per 500 000 population) (all)0.0020.0004<0.0018.6−5
Median GINI
 ≥0.30 (referent: <0.3) (12)0.0380.0150.017.6−50.0340.0160.03
 ≥Median (=0.37) (referent: <0.37) (7)−0.0080.0060.172.0−5
Time lag between income inequality and SRH
 No (11)ReferentReferent
 Yes (3)0.0190.004<0.0010.00.02090.005<0.001
Adjusting for area income
 No (9)ReferentReferent
 Yes (5)−0.0210.0090.028.4−5−0.0160.0100.12
  • Intercepts in these meta-regression models represent the degree of the associations between income inequality and poor SRH when explanatory variables are in a referent category or zero (for continuous explanatory variables).

  • * τ2 represents the magnitude of residual heterogeneity.

  • SRH, self-rated health.