Table 2

Educational differences in the effect of health status on personal income and its different components (all 16–64 years, excluding students, self-employed, unpaid work; 11 countries)

Personal income (gross, per month)Labour force participation (% of population 16–64 y)Number of hours worked/weekHourly income
Summary measure of effect with 95% CI*
 Low educated1.280 (1.250 to 1.300)1.046 (1.041 to 1.051)1.019 (1.012 to 1.025)1.041 (1.031 to 1.052)
 Mid educated1.140 (1.120 to 1.160)1.030 (1.024 to 1.037)1.007 (1.000 to 1.013)1.025 (1.014 to 1.037)
 High educated1.140 (1.120 to 1.170)1.023 (1.014 to 1.031)1.009 (1.001 to 1.018)1.030 (1.014 to 1.046)
Test (p value) of interaction<0.0001<0.00010.0011<0.0001
  • * To be interpreted as the relative increase in the economic outcome per one unit increase in general health. Estimated with log-linear regression in which the dependent variable is health status measured at interval scale from 1 (for 'very bad') to 5 (for 'very good'). With control for age*gender, co-habitational status and country.

  • Interaction between education (as 3-level nominal variable) and health (measured as the interval variable). Estimated with a log-linear regression model with control for age*gender, cohabitation status and country.