Table 3

Reduction in the between-country differences in work stress (low control and effort–reward ratio): results of multilevel models

Model 1Model 2Model 3aModel 3bModel 3cModel 3d
Empty model+Individual level variablesModel 2+employment rate 55+Model 2+long-term unemployment 55+Model 2+further educationModel 2+welfare regimes
Effort–reward imbalance ratio (N=8716)
Random parameters (SD)
 Level 2: between country0.078***0.073***0.064***0.067***0.063***0.065***
Statistics
 R2 2 (level 2)0.1280.3230.2650.3340.296
 Log-likelihood−4693.08−4527.37−4525.91−4526.40−4525.86−4526.20
 Akaike Information Criterion9392.179078.749077.829078.819077.729082.41
 BIC9413.399163.619169.779170.769169.679188.50
Control (N=8985)
R parameters
 Level 2: between country0.311***0.312***0.228***0.291***0.214***0.160***
Statistics
 R2 2 (level 2)−0.0040.4620.1220.5250.737
 Log-likelihood−15462.53−15098.60−15094.93−15097.80−15094.15−15091.19
 Akaike Information Criterion30931.0730221.1930215.8630221.6030214.3030212.39
 Bayesian Information Criterion30952.3830306.4330308.2030313.9530306.6530318.94
  • Model 2 adjusts for gender, age, income, education, employment status and work time.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • SD.