Table 1

Welfare regime types and macro level indicators

Type of welfare regimeLiberal (GB): characterised by comparably low levels of welfare provision, means testing and a deregulated labour market. Conservative (DE, NL, BE, FR, CH, AT): characterised by a strong relation between social protection and the occupational position, medium levels of welfare provision and an emphasis on the role of the family. Scandinavian (SE, DK): characterised by comparably high levels of welfare provision, universalism and an interventionist state. Southern (IT, ES, GR): characterised by a fragmentation of different social protection systems and a high variance in the level and provision of welfare.
Old-age employment rate (%)The indicator informs about the labour market participation of the elder population. It is influenced by economic structures, the composition of the elder workforce, retirement policies, general and specific labour policies for older people. The old-age employment rate is calculated by dividing the number of persons aged 55 to 64 in employment by the total population of the same age.
Old-age long-term unemployment rate (%)The long-term unemployment rate among elderly indicates the labour market integration of the economically active—either forced or voluntary—older population. It is influenced by business cycles, unemployment protection and labour policies and calculated as the percentage of the long-term unemployed (12 months or more) of all unemployed in the age group 50–64 years (%).
Further education among adultsLifelong learning is a key concept to promote decent employment at all ages. Especially the elder workforce profits from further education as it improves their level of qualification and therefore their position on the labour market. The variable refers to persons aged 25 to 64 who stated that they received education or training in the 4 weeks preceding the survey with the total population of the same age as denominator.