Table 4

Associations between work stress and depressive symptoms at baseline and at follow-up

Effort–reward imbalanceLow control
Adjusted* OR (95% CI) high versus median/low (reference) imbalanceAdjusted* OR (95% CI) low control versus median/high (reference) control
Depressive symptoms baseline (CES-D)(N=6270)(N=6447)
Pooled2.12 (1.83 to 2.46)1.81 (1.53 to 2.14)
Liberal2.64 (2.03 to 3.43)2.29 (1.69 to 3.11)
Conservative1.96 (1.53 to 2.50)1.75 (1.33 to 2.28)
Scandinavian1.69 (1.07 to 2.66)1.48 (0.89 to 2.45)
Southern2.14 (1.47 to 3.11)1.67 (1.12 to 2.50)
Depressive symptoms follow-up (Euro-D)(N=4380)(N=4505)
Pooled1.48 (1.23 to 1.79)1.24 (1.01 to 1.53)
Liberal/no longitudinal data/no longitudinal data
Conservative1.53 (1.19 to 1.97)1.26 (0.95 to 1.68)
Scandinavian0.97 (0.65 to 1.44)1.05 (0.69 to 1.61)
Southern2.27 (1.48 to 3.50)1.45 (0.92 to 2.29)
  • * All models adjusted for gender, age, income, education, employment status and work time (in case of pooled estimates in addition for welfare-state affiliation).

  • Outcome depression at follow-up additionally adjusted for depressive symptoms at baseline.