Table 2

Hierarchical assessment of socioeconomic status (education and occupation) in head and neck cancer (1017 cases and 951 controls)

CovariatesModel 1Model 2
OR (95% CI)*OR (95% CI)
Distal covariates: socioeconomic status
Education
  More than 8 years1.00
  4 to 8 years1.23 (0.99 to 1.53)
  less than 4 years2.27 (1.61 to 3.19)
Occupation
  Non-manual (I, II, IIIN)1.00
  Manual (IIIM, IV, V)1.55 (1.26 to 1.92)
Proximal covariates: lifestyle factors
Smoking (packs-year)§
  Non-smokers1.001.00
  Less than 21.82.67 (1.84 to 3.88)2.66 (1.83 to 3.86)
  21.8 to 37.06.25 (4.25 to 9.18)6.18 (4.21 to 9.07)
  37.1 to 57.77.92 (5.34 to 11.75)7.84 (5.29 to 11.63)
  57.8 or more7.78 (5.22 to 11.60)7.89 (5.30 to 11.76)
Alcohol drinking (grams-year)
  Non-drinkers1.001.00
  Less than 723.43.01 (2.10 to 4.31)3.02 (2.11 to 4.32)
  723.4 to 2241.185.40 (3.72 to 7.84)5.39 (3.72 to 7.82)
  2241.19 to 5562.17.88 (5.33 to 11.64)7.88 (5.34 to 11.64)
  5562.2 or more8.47 (5.69 to 12.59)8.38 (5.64 to 12.45)
  • * OR, 95% CI, as assessed by unconditional logistic regression. Distal covariates were adjusted for sex and age. Proximal covariates were adjusted for sex, age, education and by themselves.

  • OR, 95% CI, as assessed by unconditional logistic regression. Distal covariates were adjusted for sex and age. Proximal covariates adjusted were adjusted for sex, age, occupation and by themselves.

  • Classified according to the British Registrar.10

  • § Number of packs (20 cigarettes) smoked per day multiplied by the number of years of smoking.

  • Grams of ethanol consumed per day multiplied by the number of years of drinking.