Table 3

Determinants of health: the effect of social capital. Instrumental variable estimates, with community fixed effects

Pooled SampleArmeniaBelarusGeorgiaKazakhstanKyrgyzstanMoldovaRussiaUkraine
Trust0.0761***0.141**0.0948***0.0750*0.0473**0.04320.03760.0713***0.118***
(6.90)(2.23)(2.94)(1.91)(2.032)(1.12)(1.16)(3.34)(4.02)
Membership−0.00843−0.188*−0.0883−0.153−0.0563−0.09650.0919*0.0373−0.0182
(0.38)(1.69)(1.39)(0.92)(1.10)(1.22)(1.87)(0.92)(0.28)
Social isolation−0.112***−0.163***−0.101***−0.161***−0.108***−0.0417−0.0742**−0.139***−0.142***
(9.00)(2.65)(2.79)(3.55)(3.95)(1.02)(2.22)(5.62)(3.95)
Observations11178785146815081740671158121901235
Number of communities3661059485222516955
R-squared0.16710.14020.15190.18790.19520.27020.15210.17190.2174
  • Absolute value of z statistics in parentheses, *significant at 10%; **significant at 5%; ***significant at 1%.

  • Additional covariates include individual variables (age, educational dummies, work status), household variables (household size, number of working household members, dummies defining the material and economic conditions, and proxies for healthcare facilities, ie, distance to the nearest doctor and hospital, two dummies for the quality of the water and the type of road leading from the household dwelling to the community) and community fixed effects.

  • The external instruments are, for each individual, the mean level of social capital of all other individuals living in the same community.

  • Source: Living Standards, Lifestyles and Health Survey, 2001.