Table 2

Rate ratios (95% CI) for the risk of medically certified sickness absence by occupational social class: the effect of adjusting for working conditions, health-related behaviours and family-related factors, women

Managers and professionalsSemi-professionalsRoutine non-manual workersManual workers
RR (95% CI)%red*RR (95% CI)%red*RR (95% CI)%red*
Age-adjusted1.001.51 (1.33 to 1.71)2.39 (2.16 to 2.65)2.85 (2.52 to 3.23)
Shift work1.001.47 (1.30 to 1.67)82.32 (2.10 to 2.57)52.81 (2.48 to 3.18)2
Working overtime1.001.50 (1.32 to 1.70)22.38 (2.15 to 2.64)12.84 (2.50 to 3.22)1
Temporary contract1.001.50 (1.33 to 1.70)22.38 (2.15 to 2.64)12.84 (2.50 to 3.21)1
All work arrangements1.001.46 (1.29 to 1.66)102.30 (2.08 to 2.55)62.78 (2.45 to 3.15)4
Hazardous exposures1.001.49 (1.31 to 1.68)42.33 (2.10 to 2.57)42.63 (2.32 to 2.98)12
Physical work load1.001.29 (1.14 to 1.46)431.92 (1.72 to 2.13)342.28 (2.00 to 2.59)31
Computer work1.001.48 (1.31 to 1.68)62.22 (2.00 to 2.46)122.65 (2.32 to 3.03)11
Physical strain1.001.37 (1.21 to 1.56)272.06 (1.85 to 2.28)242.34 (2.05 to 2.67)28
All physical working conditions1.001.30 (1.15 to 1.47)411.84 (1.65 to 2.05)402.08 (1.81 to 2.39)42
Mental strain1.001.53 (1.35 to 1.74)−42.49 (2.25 to 2.76)−73.06 (2.70 to 3.48)−11
Low job control1.001.47 (1.30 to 1.67)82.24 (2.01 to 2.49)112.64 (2.31 to 3.01)11
High job demands1.001.54 (1.36 to 1.74)−62.50 (2.26 to 2.77)−82.98 (2.63 to 3.38)−7
Social support at work1.001.50 (1.32 to 1.69)22.36 (2.13 to 2.61)22.78 (2.45 to 3.15)4
Job dissatisfaction1.001.50 (1.33 to 1.70)22.37 (2.14 to 2.62)12.82 (2.50 to 3.19)2
Bullying at workplace1.001.50 (1.32 to 1.70)22.37 (2.15 to 2.63)12.87 (2.53 to 3.25)−1
All psychosocial working conditions1.001.49 (1.32 to 1.69)42.36 (2.12 to 2.63)22.87 (2.51 to 3.28)−1
Smoking1.001.49 (1.32 to 1.68)42.27 (2.05 to 2.51)92.63 (2.32 to 2.98)12
Alcohol use1.001.50 (1.33 to 1.70)22.37 (2.14 to 2.62)12.82 (2.49 to 3.19)2
Physical activity1.001.52 (1.34 to 1.72)−22.40 (2.17 to 2.66)−12.88 (2.54 to 3.26)−2
BMI1.001.49 (1.32 to 1.69)42.28 (2.06 to 2.52)82.65 (2.34 to 3.00)11
All health-related behaviours1.001.47 (1.30 to 1.66)82.14 (1.94 to 2.36)182.42 (2.14 to 2.74)23
Marital status1.001.50 (1.33 to 1.70)22.37 (2.14 to 2.62)12.81 (2.48 to 3.18)2
Having children in the family1.001.51 (1.33 to 1.71)02.39 (2.16 to 2.64)02.85 (2.51 to 3.23)0
Work/home conflict1.001.52 (1.34 to 1.72)−22.44 (2.20 to 2.69)−42.92 (2.58 to 3.31)−4
Social networks1.001.51 (1.33 to 1.71)02.38 (2.15 to 2.64)12.84 (2.51 to 3.21)1
Social support1.001.50 (1.32 to 1.69)22.35 (2.12 to 2.60)32.75 (2.43 to 3.12)5
Negative events in the family1.001.50 (1.32 to 1.70)22.38 (2.15 to 2.63)12.84 (2.51 to 3.21)1
All family-related factors1.001.49 (1.32 to 1.69)42.35 (2.12 to 2.60)32.76 (2.43 to 3.12)5
All adjustments1.001.23 (1.09 to 1.39)551.56 (1.39 to 1.75)601.66 (1.43 to 1.93)64
  • * Percentage reduction in occupational class differences in medically confirmed sickness absence attributable to each explanatory factor: (RR(base model)−(RR(base model+explanatory factor))/(RR(base model)−1)×100.