Table 1

Levels of the built environment and their influences on health, safety and sustainability

Level of built environmentOutcome areas
Influences on health and safetyInfluences on sustainability
Global, national, regional levelsPolicy, socio-economic and cultural influences beyond the neighbourhood levelPolicy and economic influences—for example, Kyoto Protocol
NeighbourhoodPhysical features such as air pollution, road safety, urban design, transportation, amenitiesUrban design, waste and water management and transport infrastructure
CommunitySocial, cultural and economic aspects such as social capital, safety from crime, civic capacityWillingness to invest in infrastructural and behavioural change
DwellingPhysical quality of building such as insulation and safety featuresAbility of the dwelling to use water and energy efficiently to support the daily life of the occupants
HouseholdSocial, cultural and economic aspects such as affordability, suitability, security of tenureRequirements of the household in terms of space, energy, water and transport
IndividualsDemographic, psychological and biological features, including knowledge and attitudesCultural and lifestyle characteristics such as willingness to recycle and use sustainable options in transport
  • The area in bold shows the elements included in the assessment tools developed in England and New Zealand.