Table 4

Generalised estimating equation (GEE) model showing relationship between smoking and smoking cessation and CBCL morbidity (T≥60) at each age

Multivariate GEE model: years 2 to 14 inclusive
OR
95% CI
Significance (p value)
Unadjusted analysis**Adjusted analysis††
Predictor variablesTotal behaviourInternalising behaviourExternalising behaviourTotal behaviourInternalising behaviourExternalising behaviour
Smoking in pregnancy§
1–10 cigarettes daily before pregnancy0.94
0.70 to 1.27
0.688
0.92
0.69 to 1.21
0.533
0.93
0.70 to 1.25
0.644
0.90
0.66 to 1.23
0.501
0.93
0.69 to 1.25
0.625
0.93
0.68 to 1.25
0.614
11+ cigarettes daily before pregnancy1.10
0.81 to 1.48
0.557
1.17
0.89 to 1.55
0.256
1.09
0.80 to 1.46
0.594
1.02
0.72 to 1.43
0.930
1.21
0.87 to 1.67
0.261
0.92
0.65 to 1.31
0.658
Smoked before and during pregnancy2.19
1.72 to 2.79
<0.001
1.81
1.43 to 2.31
<0.001
2.21
1.75 to 2.80
<0.001
1.70
1.25 to 2.31
0.001
1.55*
1.14 to 2.11
0.006
1.71
1.27 to 2.31
<0.001
  • * p<0.05.

  • p<0.005.

  • Obtained with binomial distribution, logit link and unstructured correlation.

  • § Reference category never smoked.

  • No longer smoking by 18 weeks gestation.

  • ** Adjusted for child's age (and child's age squared).

  • †† Adjusted for maternal age at conception, maternal education at 18 weeks gestation, the presence of the biological father in the family home at 18 weeks gestation, family income at 18 weeks gestation, total stress events in pregnancy, alcohol intake at 18 weeks gestation, birth weight (grams), gestational age (weeks), breast feeding duration (months), family functioning from 5 to 14 years and child's age at follow-up (and child's age at follow-up squared).

  • CBCL, Child Behaviour Checklist.