Table 3

Odds ratios (95% CI) of adverse birth outcomes and neighbourhood income and unemployment/social security benefit quartiles

Preterm birthsSmall for gestation age birthsPregnancy-induced hypertensionMiscarriage/perinatal death
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Median income
Q4 (richest)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Q31.07 (0.79 to 1.44)1.02 (0.78 to 1.35)1.40 (1.08 to 1.81)**1.32 (1.04 to 1.68)*1.00 (0.74 to 1.34)1.00 (0.74 to 1.34)1.30 (0.58 to 2.96)1.22 (0.55 to 2.74)
Q21.35 (1.00 to 1.81)*1.12 (0.84 to 1.49)1.63 (1.26 to 2.11)***1.42 (1.11 to 1.82)**1.05 (0.77 to 1.42)1.04 (0.76 to 1.42)2.35 (1.09 to 5.07)*1.81 (0.83 to 3.96)
Q1 (poorest)1.36 (1.00 to 1.85)*1.03 (0.76 to 1.40)1.93 (1.48 to 2.50)***1.62 (1.25 to 2.08)***1.04 (0.75 to 1.45)1.07 (0.76 to 1.51)2.30 (1.05 to 5.07)*1.64 (0.72 to 3.74)
Unemployment/SSB
Q1 (lowest)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Q21.01 (0.74 to 1.36)0.95 (0.74 to 1.28)1.15 (0.88 to 1.49)1.10 (0.86 to 1.39)0.95 (0.72 to 1.26)1.00 (0.75 to 1.33)2.35 (1.03 to 5.39)*2.04 (0.92 to 4.52)
Q31.18 (0.88 to 1.59)1.04 (0.80 to 1.37)1.29 (0.99 to 1.68)1.15 (0.91 to 1.45)0.86 (0.65 to 1.14)0.88 (0.66 to 1.18)2.31 (1.01 to 5.28)*1.95 (0.88 to 4.33)
Q4 (highest)1.16 (0.89 to 1.55)0.97 (0.84 to 1.52)1.49 (0.1.15 to 1.93)**1.36 (1.08 to 1.72)**0.76 (0.57 to 1.01)0.79 (0.59 to 1.07)2.28 (1.00 to 5.18)*1.78 (0.80 to 3.99)
  • Model 1 (adjusted for age and parity); model 2 (plus educational level and ethnicity, smoking and BMI); SSB, social security benefit; *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001