Table 4

Summary details of unemployment and welfare, agriculture and food, and water and sanitation reviews

CitationIntervention(s)Summary of results
Unemployment and welfare
Adams et al45Professional welfare rights advice in healthcare settings (welfare benefit maximisation)Little evidence that the advice leads to measurable health and social benefits, although some studies reported improvements in self-reported mental health. Absence of evidence rather than evidence of no effect.
Crowther et al43Supported employment or prevocational training to help people with severe mental illness get into employmentNo significant impact on employment outcomes in comparison to standard care. Some evidence that supported employment more effective than prevocational training.
Bambra et al44Welfare to work interventions aimed at people out of work due to a health condition or disabilityEvidence of positive employment outcomes was not compelling because, although positive outcomes ranged from 11% to 50%, controls were rarely used, so there is possible confounding effect by relatively buoyant labour market.
Agriculture and food
Wall47Monetary incentives, including price decreases on low-fat snacks in vending machines, farmers' market coupons for fruit and vegetables, free food provision.Positive effect s were found on weight loss, consumption of fruit and vegetables, redemption of coupons and attitudes towards fruit and vegetable consumption.
Water and sanitation
Demos et al48Changes in water fluoridation levels (typical levels were 0.05 to 1.5 ppm)Fluoridation at levels up to 1 ppm has no adverse effects on bone fracture incidence, bone mineral density or bone strength.