Table 1 Characteristics of men participating in the Zutphen Study by year of measurement*
Cohort1960196519701985199019952000
No. of participants†196087272161534923111451
198547630616168
Cumulative no of deaths
    All causes401034126458891130
    Total cardiovascular2061261376514628
    Coronary heart disease1340176231297348
    Cerebrovascular3104978113139
Age (years)‡49±654±559±571±575±580±483±3
Body mass index (kg/m2)24.1±2.724.9±2.725.2±2.825.5±3.125.5±3.225.3±3.426.0±3.3
Overall smoking (%)§
    Never and long-term ex66926506072
    Recent-ex6111531171614
    Cigarettes7461533023186
    Cigars or pipes142123131068
Energy without alcohol (kcal)3082±6732920±6742539±5392146±5062029±4582029±4681991±457
Alcohol intake (g/day)¶19608±1310±1312±1318±1914±1514±1413±11
198518±1714±1413±1514±16
Alcohol users (%)196045627275788086
198575727885
Beer users (%)196038354224222237
198524252529
Wine users (%)196025620262939
198525313847
Spirits users (%)196015425255555861
198555494954
  • *Numbers represent means ± standard deviation, unless indicated otherwise.

  • †In every measurement round, the participants who took part in both physical and dietary examinations were selected for the analyses.

  • ‡Age is defined as age on 31 December in the year preceding the examination.

  • §Never and long-term ex-smokers are defined as men who never smoked or stopped smoking ⩾10 years ago; recent ex-smokers are defined as men who stopped smoking <10 years ago.

  • ¶Average alcohol intake was calculated among alcohol users.