Table 2 Factors associated with recent frequent public injecting* among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver, Canada (study period December 2003 to November 2005; n = 620)
CharacteristicUnivariate GEEMultivariate GEE
OR (95% CI)p ValueAOR (95% CI)p Value
Gender
    Female vs male1.01 (0.70 to 1.46)0.952
Older age
    per year older0.92 (0.89 to 0.94)<0.0010.95 (0.93 to 0.98)<0.001
Aboriginal ethnicity
    Yes vs no1.23 (0.84 to 1.81)0.285
Homelessness†
    Yes vs no8.81 (6.13 to 12.65)<0.0016.70 (4.55 to 9.87)<0.001
Frequent crack use†
    Yes vs no2.06 (1.54 to 2.76)<0.0011.48 (1.04 to 2.11)0.029
Frequent heroin injector†
    Yes vs no2.05 (1.53 to 2.75)<0.0011.56 (1.10 to 2.20)0.012
Frequent cocaine injector†
    Yes vs no1.06 (0.79 to 1.42)0.679
Overdose (non-fatal)†
    Yes vs no1.34 (0.80 to 2.24)0.262
Requires help injecting†
    Yes vs no1.40 (1.01 to 1.93)0.0421.17 (0.79 to 1.73)0.443
Binge drug use†
    Yes vs no1.04 (0.76 to 1.43)0.800
Syringe borrowing†
    Yes vs no1.44 (0.87 to 2.39)0.159
Syringe lending†
    Yes vs no1.30 (0.73 to 2.31)0.374
Cooks and filters drugs†
    Yes vs no0.44 (0.32 to 0.60)<0.0010.50 (0.35 to 0.71)<0.001
Any addiction treatment†
    Yes vs no0.57 (0.42 to 0.76)<0.0010.71 (0.49 to 1.02)0.067
Sex trade†
    Yes vs no1.23 (0.84 to 1.81)0.285
Drug dealing†
    Yes vs no1.47 (0.94 to 2.29)0.093
Recent incarceration†
    Yes vs no1.92 (1.30 to 2.83)0.0011.44 (0.98 to 2.11)0.062
Downtown Eastside residency†
    Yes vs no1.22 (0.85 to 1.75)0.271
  • *Recent frequent public injector includes participants who report “always” or “usually” injecting in public in the previous 6 months

  • †Activities or situations referring to previous 6 months

  • AOR, adjusted odds ratio; GEE, generalised estimating equation.