Table 1 Characteristics of active injectors among a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver, Canada stratified by recent frequent public injecting (N = 620)
Characteristic†Recent frequent public injector*
Yes (n = 142)n (%)No (n = 478)n (%)OR (95% CI)
Median age (IQR)26 (22 to 33)34 (26–41)0.92 (0.89 to 0.94)
Gender
    Female81 (78)288 (22)1.14 (0.78 to 1.67)
    Male61 (24)190 (76)
Aboriginal ethnicity
    Yes51 (25)152 (75)1.20 (0.81 to 1.78)
    No91 (22)326 (78)
Homelessness‡
    Yes72 (62)44 (38)10.15 (6.46 to 15.94)
    No70 (14)434 (86)
Frequent crack use‡
    Yes96 (30)228 (70)2.29 (1.54 to 3.40)
    No46 (16)250 (84)
Frequent heroin injector‡
    Yes80 (31)181 (69)2.12 (1.45 to 3.10)
    No62 (17)297 (83)
Frequent cocaine injector‡
    Yes46 (22)168 (78)0.88 (0.59 to 1.32)
    No96 (24)310 (76)
Overdose (non-fatal) ‡
    Yes15 (29)36 (71)1.45 (0.77 to 2.73)
    No127 (22)442 (78)
Requires help injecting‡
    Yes42 (30)97 (70)1.65 (1.08 to 2.52)
    No381 (79)100 (21)
Binge drug use‡
    Yes30 (25)91 (75)1.14 (0.72 to 1.81)
    No112 (22)387 (78)
Syringe borrowing‡
    Yes19 (33)38 (67)1.79 (1.00 to 3.21)
    No123 (22)440 (78)
Syringe lending‡
    Yes11 (28)29 (72)1.30 (0.63 to 2.67)
    No131 (23)449 (77)
Cooks and filters drugs‡
    Yes44 (13)283 (87)0.31 (0.21 to 0.46)
    No98 (33)195 (67)
Any addiction treatment‡
    Yes37 (15)211 (85)0.45 (0.29 to 0.68)
    No105 (28)267 (72)
Sex trade‡
    Yes35 (29)88 (71)1.51 (0.97 to 2.34)
    No106 (21)390 (79)
Drug dealing‡
    Yes19 (41)27 (59)2.58 (1.39 to 4.80)
    No123 (21)451 (79)
Recent incarceration‡
    Yes42 (38)68 (62)2.53 (1.63 to 3.94)
    No100 (20)410 (80)
Downtown Eastside residency‡
    Yes95 (25)291 (75)1.30 (0.88 to 1.93)
    No47 (20)187 (80)
  • *Recent frequent public injector includes participants who report “always” or “usually” injecting in public in the previous 6 months

  • †Characteristics for recent frequent public injectors were measured at their first visit (during the study period December 2003 to November 2005), which involved a report of frequent public injecting. Characteristics for all other participants were measured from the first study visit during the study period

  • ‡ Activities or situations referring to previous 6 months.

  • IQR, interquartile range.