Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios and 95% CI for having a male infant for different predictor variables (1983–2004/05)
OR (95% CI)p Value
Income quartiles0.092
    Poorest (reference)1.00
    2nd poorest1.01 (0.97 to 1.06)0.591
    2nd richest1.05 (1.00 to 1.10)0.057
    Richest1.06 (1.01 to 1.12)0.029
Education (head)0.003
    Illiterate (reference)1.00
    Primary0.98 (0.94 to 1.02)0.365
    Secondary0.97 (0.92 to 1.02)0.177
    Post-secondary1.15 (1.04 to 1.27)0.007
Education (spouse)0.445
    Illiterate (reference)1.00
    Primary0.99 (0.94 to 1.04)0.637
    Secondary0.99 (0.93 to 1.06)0.802
    Post-secondary0.89 (0.77 to 1.03)0.11
Social caste0.45
    Other caste (reference)1.00
    Scheduled tribe0.96 (0.90 to 1.02)0.219
    Scheduled caste0.99 (0.94 to 1.03)0.606
Religion0.137
    Hindu (reference)1.00
    Muslim0.99 (0.94 to 1.04)0.776
    Christian0.89 (0.81 to 0.99)0.031
    Sikhs1.06 (0.93 to 1.22)0.389
    Others0.91 (0.80 to 1.04)0.165
Place of residence
    Rural (reference)1.00
    Urban1.03 (0.99 to 1.07)0.19
Survey period
    Pre-PNDT (reference)1.00
    Post-PNDT1.03 (0.99 to 1.07)0.099
State0.01
    Kerala (reference)1.00
    Karnataka0.85 (0.75 to 0.96)0.009
    Himachal Pradesh0.87 (0.75 to 1.01)0.07
    Assam0.93 (0.81 to 1.09)0.378
    West Bengal0.93 (0.82 to 1.05)0.229
    Orissa0.94 (0.83 to 1.07)0.372
    Other states0.95 (0.86 to 1.06)0.397
    Uttar Pradesh0.95 (0.86 to 1.06)0.38
    Madhya Pradesh0.95 (0.85 to 1.06)0.386
    Maharashtra0.95 (0.85 to 1.07)0.393
    Andhra Pradesh0.95 (0.85 to 1.07)0.41
    Delhi0.97 (0.78 to 1.20)0.751
    Bihar0.99 (0.89 to 1.11)0.904
    Tamil Nadu0.99 (0.88 to 1.11)0.819
    Rajasthan1.00 (0.89 to 1.13)0.985
    Gujarat1.03 (0.91 to 1.17)0.6
    Haryana1.04 (0.90 to 1.21)0.589
    Punjab1.17 (1.01 to 1.36)0.04
No. of children1.00 (0.99 to 1.02)0.74