Table 3

Percentage increases and 95% CIs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-related emergency department visits due to interquartile range increases in PM10 (28.3 μg/m3), SO2 (7.8 μg/m3) and CO (1.3 ppm) according to gender and age

Percentage increase (95% CI)
TotalMaleFemale40–64 years>64 years
PM10
    Lag 09.8 (1.0 to 19.3)7.9 (−3.4 to 20.6)13.6 (1.1 to 27.6)10.4 (−1.2 to 23.3)12.0 (−0.3 to 25.8)
    Lag 11.7 (−2.7 to 6.3)4.6 (−1.0 to 10.6)−0.1 (−5.4 to 5.6)3.7 (−1.8 to 9.7)1.1 (−4.3 to 6.9)
    Lag 2−0.0 (−4.4 to 4.5)3.2 (−2.99 to 9.6)−3.3 (−9.0 to 2.7)1.7 (−4.3 to 8.1)−1.7 (−7.5 to 4.5)
    Lag 30.1 (−3.1 to 3.5)2.6 (−1.9 to 7.2)−1.1 (−5.4 to 3.4)1.7 (−2.7 to 6.3)0.3 (−4.1 to 4.8)
    Lag 43.2 (−1.3 to 7.8)2.3 (−3.2 to 8.1)0.3 (−5.6 to 6.6)1.7 (−4.3 to 8.1)4.3 (−1.8 to 10.9)
    Lag 52.9 (−1.0, 6.9)1.7 (−3.8, 7.5)4.3 (−1.3, 10.3)0.1 (−5.3, 5.8)7.9 (2.1, 14.1)
    Lag 6−2.0 (−8.8 to 5.4)0.3 (−8.7 to 10.2)−0.6 (−10.0 to 9.9 )−5.2 (−14.2 to 4.7)8.2 (−2.0 to 19.6)
    S* 2 days11.7 (1.6 to 22.7)12.9 (−0.0 to 27.6)13.5 (−0.1 to 28.9)14.5 (1.4 to 29.4)13.2 (−0.3 to 28.6)
    S 3 days11.6 (1.0 to 23.3)16.5 (2.6 to 32.3)9.7 (−4.5 to 26.0)16.5 (2.0 to 33.0)11.3 (−2.5 to 27.2)
    S 6 days18.6 (3.8 to 35.5)24.3 (5.3 to 46.8)13.5 (−4.9 to 35.5)20.6 (1.6 to 43.2)25.7 (5.9 to 49.2)
    S 7 days17.5 (−12.6 to 57.9)24.7 (5.0 to 48.0)12.9 (−5.5 to 34.7)14.3 (−4.8 to 37.2)36.0 (14.6 to 61.5)
SO2
    Lag 09.1 (6.6 to 11.6)5.5 (−5.5 to 17.8)15.0 (2.1 to 29.6)12.8 (0.7 to 26.3)3.2 (−0.1 to 6.5)
    Lag 12.7 (1.4 to 4.0)5.6 (−0.3 to 11.9)−0.2 (−6.2 to 6.3)4.0 (−2.0 to 10.4)0.3 (−1.2 to 1.9)
    Lag 20.6 (−0.6 to 1.9)4.2 (−1.8 to 10.6)−3.9 (−10.0 to 2.6)1.3 (−4.8 to 7.9)−0.4 (−2.1 to 1.3)
    Lag 30.9 (−0.1 to 1.8)2.1 (−2.3 to 6.8)−1.9 (−6.5 to 3.1)1.7 (−2.9 to 6.4)0.7 (−0.5 to 1.9)
    Lag 41.5 (0.3 to 2.7)0.2 (−5.6 to 6.3)2.0 (−4.4 to 8.7)2.1 (−4.0 to 8.5)1.2 (−0.5 to 2.9)
    Lag 50.8 (−0.3 to 1.9)−1.1 (−6.5 to 4.7)3.3 (−2.6 to 9.4)−0.1 (−5.7 to 5.9)2.1 (0.6 to 3.7)
    Lag 6−3.1 (−5.0 to −1.1)−0.8 (−10.3 to 9.8)−2.5 (−12.4 to 8.5)−7.3 (−16.6 to 3.0)2.2 (−0.6 to 5.1)
    S 2 days12.0 (1.5 to 23.5)11.5 (−1.7 to 26.4)14.8 (0.2 to 31.6)17.3 (3.0 to 33.6)3.5 (−0.1 to 7.2)
    S 3 days12.7 (1.2 to 25.4)16.2 (1.4 to 33.1)10.3 (−4.9 to 28.0)18.8 (2.9 to 37.2)3.1 (−0.6 to 7.0)
    S 6 days16.3 (0.7 to 34.3)17.5 (−2.2 to 41.2)14.0 (−6.6 to 39.1)21.2 (−0.4 to 47.4)7.3 (2.3 to 12.5)
    S 7 days12.7 (−3.0 to 30.9)16.6 (−3.5 to 41.0)11.1 (−9.5 to 36.4)12.3 (−8.5 to 37.9)9.7 (4.6 to 15.0)
CO
    Lag 0−0.4 (−6.2 to 5.7)−0.4 (−7.7 to 7.5)−0.3 (−8.2 to 8.2)−0.7 (−2.5 to 1.1)1.5 (−6.5 to 10.2)
    Lag 11.0 (−2.1 to 4.3)2.9 (−1.2 to 7.2)−0.5 (−4.7 to 3.8)2.4 (1.4 to 3.4)−0.7 (−4.9 to 3.6)
    Lag 22.3 (−1.0 to 5.7)3.5 (−0.9 to 8.0)0.7 (−3.8 to 5.4)3.0 (1.9 to 4.0)0.2 (−4.3 to 4.9)
    Lag 33.1 (0.6 to 5.7)2.3 (−1.0 to 5.7)2.5 (−0.9 to 6.0)1.9 (1.2 to 2.7)2.7 (−0.6 to 6.3)
    Lag 43.2 (−0.1 to 6.6)0.6 (−3.7 to 5.1)4.0 (−0.3 to 8.6)0.3 (−0.7 to 1.3)5.4 (0.9 to 10.0)
    Lag 52.2 (−0.9 to 5.5)−0.6 (−4.7 to 3.7)4.6 (0.4 to 8.9)−0.9 (−1.9 to 0.0)6.3 (2.0 to 10.8)
    Lag 60.1 (−5.5 to 6.0)−0.1 (−7.4 to 7.6)3.2 (−4.3 to 11.2)−0.9 (−2.5 to 0.8)3.8 (−3.7 to 11.9)
    S 2 days0.6 (−6.1 to 7.7)2.5 (−6.0 to 11.8)−0.8 (−9.6 to 8.8)1.7 (−0.4 to 3.9)−1.4 (−10.1 to 8.0)
    S 3 days3.7 (−3.7 to 11.7)6.1 (−3.5 to 16.6)−0.1 (−9.6 to 10.3)4.7 (2.4 to 7.2)−0.1 (−9.5 to 10.2)
    S 6 days12.8 (2.2 to 24.6)8.6 (−4.8 to 23.8)11.3 (−2.0 to 26.4)6.1 (2.8 to 9.5)10.2 (−2.8 to 24.9)
    S 7 days12.9 (1.3 to 25.9)8.4 (8.0 to 8.8)14.8 (0.3 to 31.4)5.2 (1.8 to 8.7)14.3 (0.2 to 30.2)
  • *Sum.