Table 1

Weighted estimates of characteristics of non-institutionalised adults, jail inmates, and prison inmates (2002–4)

Demographic characteristicsNon-institutionalised adultsJail inmatesPrison inmates
Unweighted noWeighted % (95% CI)Unweighted noWeighted % (95% CI)Unweighted noWeighted % (95% CI)
Age, years*
18–342542734.6 (34.0 to 35.2)375258.1 (56.7 to 59.5)640745.8 (44.0 to 47.6)
35–492982038.5 (38.0 to 38.9)251636.8 (35.5 to 38.2)649244.4 (42.9 to 45.8)
50+2135026.9 (26.5 to 27.4)3145.1 (4.5 to 5.7)14749.9 (9.0 to 10.8)
Sex*
Male3464649.1 (48.6 to 49.5)462988.3 (87.0 to 89.5)1104092.6 (90.1 to 92.6)
Female4195150.9 (50.5 to 51.4)195311.7 (10.5 to 0.13)33337.4 (5.5 to 9.9)
Race*
Non-Hispanic White4786670.4 (69.6 to 71.1)245636.0 (33.4 to 38.7)515235.4 (33.5 to 37.4)
Non-Hispanic Black1089411.8 (11.3 to 12.4)256039.7 (36.7 to 43.8)538638.1 (35.7 to 40.6)
Hispanic1446412.8 (12.2 to 13.3)115918.5 (16.1 to 21.2)283519.7 (17.8 to 21.8)
American Indian/Alaska Native6100.8 (0.7 to 0.9)1021.4 (1.1 to 1.7)3212.0 (1.5 to 2.7)
Asian24843.9 (3.6 to 4.1)651.2 (0.9 to 1.5)1751.2 (1.0 to 1.6)
Other/multiple race2790.4 (3.3 to 4.8)2403.3 (2.8 to 3.9)5043.5 (3.0 to 4.0)
Nativity, weighted %*
US born6223484.3 (83.8 to 84.8)594988.9 (86.9 to 90.7)1289590.7 (89.4 to 91.9)
Foreign born1418215.7 (15.2 to 16.2)63211.1 (9.4 to 13.1)14679.3 (8.9 to 10.6)
Marital Status, weighted %*
Married3749858.5 (57.9 to 59.1)107616.4 (15.0 to 17.9)281318.3 (17.4 to 19.3)
Widowed22902.0 (1.9 to 2.1)1121.2 (1.0 to 1.5)3261.8 (1.6 to 2.1)
Divorced1158810.7 (10.4 to 11.0)109016.0 (14.9 to 17.1)308321.1 (20.1 to 22.2)
Separated29622.5 (2.4 to 2.6)5106.8 (6.2 to 7.6)8835.5 (5.0 to 6.0)
Never married2167126.3 (25.7 to 27.0)378659.6 (57.9 to 61.2)722953.2 (51.6 to 54.8)
Education, weighted %*
Eighth grade or less44814.5 (4.2 to 4.7)78012.0 (11.0 to 13.1)11437.9 (7.3 to 8.5)
Some high school824710.2 (9.8 to 10.5)201831.2 (29.8 to 32.6)381428.0 (26.8 to 29.3)
High school diploma or GED2115128.8 (28.3 to 29.3)282143.7 (42.1 to 45.3)682249.1 (47.8 to 50.4)
Any college4178456.6 (55.8 to 57.3)90113.2 (12.2 to 14.2)253615.0 (14.2 to 15.9)
Employment†
Yes5546773.5 (73.1 to 73.9)418871.7 (70.2 to 73.1)993373.3 (72.2 to 74.3)
No2083926.5 (26.1 to 26.9)196928.3 (26.9 to 29.8)399826.7 (26.1 to 27.0)
Receipt of public assistance‡
Yes55055.2 (5.0 to 5.4)5566.3 (5.6 to 7.2)8474.5 (4.0 to 5.2)
No7083394.8 (94.6 to 95.0)558993.7 (92.8 to 94.4)1318895.5 (94.9 to 96.0)
Smoking*
Never4348557.3 (56.7 to 57.9)–§–§389434.3 (32.0 to 36.6)
Former1370818.8 (18.4 to 19.2)169015.3 (14.3 to 16.4)
Current1856823.9 (23.5 to 24.1)548650.4 (48.1 to 52.7)
Alcohol consumption*
Never1722922.2 (21.6 to 22.8)98614.1 (13.0 to 15.2)224214.6 (13.7 to 15.7)
Not weekly3444945.8 (45.3 to 46.3)276441.2 (39.8 to 42.6)568538.3 (37.2 to 39.4)
Weekly2375732.0 (31.4 to 32.6)274444.7 (43.1 to 46.4)629547.1 (45.8 to 48.3)
  • *p<0.001 by χ2test.

  • †Refers to the last week in National Health Interview Survey-Sample Adult File (NHIS-SAF) and the month before incarceration in the jail and prison surveys.

  • ‡Refers to the last year in NHIS-SAF and the month before incarceration in the jail and prison surveys.

  • §Data on smoking not available for jail inmates.

  • GED, General Equivalency Diploma.