Table 1 Summary of studies included in the review
Study no/authorsLocationProject goals/objectivesResearch design/methodsPartnership composed ofProject initiated byCommunity collaborationAction taken by community/outcomes
1 Farquhar and Wing13Rural eastern NCInvestigate health effects of a flood and the needs of survivorsCross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeA coalition of local CBOs and university researchersA community coalition on the basis of input from flood survivorsConsultation; generated survey questions; conducted interviews; determined how to apply findings to create changesRallies, media and legislature advocacy/extended provision of temporary housing for survivors
2 Wing14Rural Halifax County, NCQuantify potential impacts of industrial hog-feeding operations on health and quality of lifeCross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeCommunity groups and university researchersA grassroots environmental groupDetermined the research problem, participated in developing the survey, selecting the research site, collecting data and determining how to present the resultsPlans to build hog-feeding operations cancelled
3 McCauley et al;15 McCauley et al16Willamette Valley, ORAssess pesticide exposure and its health effectsCross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeCBOs and university researchersA CBO and university researchersConsultation on instrument design, data collection, data interpretation and presentation of results; youth worked as research assistantsNot reported
4 Swartz et al17Baltimore, MDTest the effectiveness of a pollutant and allergen control strategy on childhood asthmaRandomised controlled trial/quantitativeCommunity members, social worker, public health practitioner and university researchersUniversity researchersConsultation: served on CAB to jointly develop principles of research protocol and to facilitate communication and recruitmentNot reported (university researchers assisted community beyond the conduct of the study)
5 Maslia et al18Ocean County, NJAssess environmental exposures and its effect on childhood cancers; conduct community/professional educationCross-sectional and case–control; quantitativeA community group, county and state health departments, federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and university researchersOutgrowth of preliminary research, initiated by a community member and a nurseJointly developed research/action plan; consulted on further research activities; facilitated communication with communityIncreased community/professional education; developed and implemented an environmental health curriculum for students
6 Quigley et al19Native American communities in NV, UT and CABuild community capacity for managing the health risks of nuclear contaminationCross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeCommunity groups, EH research institute and university researchersAn organisation representing Native American Reservation CommunitiesConsultation; shared decision-making on grant applications, publications and presentations and staff recruitment; jointly developed a research plan and protocol and educational programme; collected dataEducational programme developed and implemented for community and healthcare providers
7 Corburn20Brooklyn, NYInvestigate health risks of subsistence fishingCross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeUS EPA scientists and a community group composed of CBOsUS EPA scientistsConsultation; jointly developed a research plan and protocol; tailored and administered survey; made observationsDeveloped and conducted community education; identified alternative food sources
8 Quandt et al;21 Quandt et al;22 Quandt et al;23 Arcury et al24Rural east–central NCFormative research; design, implement and evaluate health education interventionsFormative research (quantitative and qualitative); intervention (randomised controlled trial)A CBO and university researchersUniversity researchersConsultation; assisted in or collaborated on research design, data collection and design and implementation of interventionNot reported
9 Loh et al25Boston, MAInstitute an air-monitoring system; establish a data management centre; promote use of data by the community to reduce exposures to air pollutantsCross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeA CBO, state Department of Environmental Protection, county conservation district and university researchersYouth and a CBO working with themDefined research questions; collaborated on grant writing; collected data; developed and implemented interventionsAdvocacy for measures to reduce air pollutants
10 Egren et al;26 Parker et al;27 Lewis et al;28 Keeler et al29Detroit, MIInvestigate environmental exposures; design and implement an intervention study to reduce asthma triggersRandomised controlled trial/quantitativeCommunity members, CBOs, city health department, a healthcare system and university researchersGrew out of an existing CBPR partnershipCollaborated on research design, design of survey instruments, and participant and staff recruitment; collected data and implemented interventionNot reported
11 Lee et al;10 Krause et al30San Francisco, CA, and Las Vegas, NVInvestigate health and workload issues of hotel room cleanersCross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeLabour union, university researchers and university occupational health programmeA labour unionProvided funding; defined research priorities and methods; collaborated on instrument development; recruited participants and collected dataCollective action that led to reduced workload and increased labour representation on problem-solving committee
12 Lipscomb et al31Rural north-eastern NCInvestigate health effects of employment in poultry-processing plantsCohort and cross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeCommunity members as paid staff and university researchersA CBOConsultation; recruit participants; collect data; provide other research/administrative supportNot reported (research still under way)
13 Perera et al;32 Vasquez et al;33 Kinney et al34New York City, NY/African American and DominicanAssess the effects of exposures to air pollutants on infant/child health; test health education interventionsProspective cohort/quantitativeA CBO, youth, university researchers and US EPAA CBOIdentified problem; consulted on study design; facilitated communication and collaboration with community; conducted air-quality assessmentPublic awareness campaign/advocacy for environmental justice policy and regulations/
14 Jordan et al35Minneapolis, MNInvestigate the effects of lead exposure on child developmentProspective cohortCommunity residents, university researchers, local businesses and city/state health departmentsCommunity residentsConsultation; set research agenda; made decisions on proposals and future research direction; collaborated on research design and data collectionPreventive action to change city policy and to create lead-safe transitional housing; advocacy for families affected by lead
15 Krieger et al;36 Krieger et al;37 Krieger et al;38 Krieger et al39Seattle and King County, WAInvestigate indoor asthma triggers and implement intervention to reduce exposure to indoor asthma triggersRandomised controlled trial/quantitativeCBOs, advocacy groups, health department, housing authority and university researchersNot statedProvided input on research design and process; as research staff, conducted home environment assessment; implemented interventionOrganised a policy advocacy group; identified policy advocacy issues; secured funding to evaluate substandard housing units
16 Litt et al40Boston, MAQuantify lead levels in residential soil, reduce exposure to lead through low-cost landscaping interventions, and develop educational materialsPilot studyA CBO, university researchers, EPA laboratory, community health centre and local landscape contractorsNot statedShared local knowledge for site selection and the design of intervention; as staff, conducted outreach, education and landscaping; donated materials and toolsSoil lead abatement as part of intervention; disseminate the model and information about the technology to other CBOs and government agencies
17 Hynes et al41Boston, MAInvestigate indoor environmental health issues, develop an action plan and design/implement an educational programmeCross-sectional/quantitativeA community group, community health centre and university researchersUniversity researchersConsultation to guide survey construction and to provide feedback on surveyEducational programmes developed; replacement of the central heating system at a public housing scheme; a collaboration formed to improve community environmental health
18 Brugge et al42Boston, MAInvestigate the connections between the environment and health in ChinatownCross-sectional/quantitativeCBO, community health centre and university researchersNot statedProvided cultural knowledge and local concern about environmental conditions; jointly developed instrument; administered surveyNot stated
19 Schurman and Israel;43 Schurman44South–central MIConduct needs assessment and develop/implement an intervention to reduce long-term stress-related illnessCross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeLabour union, university researchers, workers, supervisors and managementInitially by a company medical director but by the researchers for this particular projectParticipated in diagnosing problems, developing/implementing a pilot intervention, evaluating outcomes and making recommendationsA corporate-wide programme reflecting recommendations implemented
20 Corburn20Brooklyn, NYConduct community health surveys focusing primarily on asthmaCross-sectional/quantitative and qualitativeA CBO and a non-profit research organisationA CBO in response to local students’ suggestionConsultation; jointly developed and administered survey; led focus group discussionsDeveloped and implemented community and professional education; organised residents to enrol in a free insurance programme
  • CAB, Community Advisory Board; CBO, community-based organisation; CBPR, community-based participatory research; EH, environmental health; EPA, Environmental Protection Agency.