Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of risk factors for overweight in children aged 3 years
Model 1: Adjusted for all individual factorsModel 2: + Adjusted for all family factorsModel 3: + Adjusted for all community factorsModel 4: + Adjusted for all area factors
Individual
Birthweight z-score1.36 (1.30 to 1.43)*1.35 (1.28 to 1.42)*1.35 (1.29 to 1.42)*1.36 (1.30 to 1.42)*
Child’s ethnicity
    White1111
    Mixed1.16 (0.86 to 1.57)1.05 (0.78 to 1.42)1.04 (0.77 to 1.40)1.18 (0.90 to 1.53)
    Indian0.46 (0.32 to 0.65)*0.49 (0.33 to 0.73)*0.49 (0.33 to 0.73)*0.63 (0.42 to 0.94)*
    Pakistani0.94 (0.77 to 1.14)0.98 (0.78 to 1.22)0.98 (0.78 to 1.23)1.01 (0.81 to 1.26)
    Bangladeshi1.13 (0.76 to 1.68)1.03 (0.61 to 1.75)1.01 (0.60 to 1.70)1.04 (0.67 to 1.60)
    Black1.61 (1.25 to 2.07)*1.35 (1.08 to 1.69)*1.29 (1.03 to 1.61)*1.41 (1.11 to 1.80)*
    Other ethnic group1.03 (0.61 to 1.74)1.15 (0.66 to 2.02)1.12 (0.65 to 1.93)0.75 (0.44 to 1.30)
Breastfeeding duration
    Never breastfed1111
    <4 months0.87 (0.79 to 0.96)*0.90 (0.81 to 1.00)*0.90 (0.81 to 1.00)*0.92 (0.83 to 1.00)*
    ⩾4 months0.73 (0.64 to 0.84)*0.84 (0.73 to 0.97)*0.84 (0.74 to 0.97)*0.86 (0.76 to 0.97)*
Introduction of solid foods
    <4 months1.18 (1.07 to 1.31)*1.11 (1.00 to 1.23)*1.11 (1.01 to 1.23)*1.12 (1.02 to 1.23)*
    ⩾4 months1111
TV viewing (hours daily)
    <11111
    ⩾1 and <31.11 (0.99 to 1.25)1.08 (0.96 to 1.22)1.08 (0.95 to 1.22)1.07 (0.97 to 1.19)
    ⩾31.17 (1.00 to 1.36)*1.07 (0.91 to 1.27)1.07 (0.90 to 1.26)1.08 (0.95 to 1.23)
Family
Lone motherhood status
    Lone mother1.49 (1.26 to 1.78)*1.47 (1.24 to 1.76)*1.32 (1.15 to 1.51)*
    Non-lone mother111
Smoking during pregnancy (daily)
    None111
    1–91.26 (1.07 to 1.50)*1.25 (1.06 to 1.49)*1.34 (1.17 to 1.54)*
    10–191.56 (1.26 to 1.94)*1.55 (1.25 to 1.92)*1.49 (1.26 to 1.75)*
    20+1.16 (0.86 to 1.58)1.16 (0.85 to 1.57)1.34 (1.05 to 1.70)*
Parental overweight
    Both2.01 (1.69 to 2.39)*2.02 (1.70 to 2.40)*1.89 (1.63 to 2.19)*
    Mother only1.40 (1.18 to 1.66)*1.40 (1.18 to 1.66)*1.37 (1.18 to 1.58)*
    Father only1.41 (1.22 to 1.63)*1.42 (1.23 to 1.64)*1.45 (1.28 to 1.63)*
    Neither111
Maternal prepregnancy overweight
    Yes1.27 (1.11 to 1.45)*1.27 (1.11 to 1.45)*1.28 (1.14 to 1.45)*
    No111
Maternal hours worked per week
    Never worked111
    1–20 hours1.08 (0.95 to 1.22)1.08 (0.95 to 1.23)1.10 (0.99 to 1.23)
    21+ hours1.26 (1.10 to 1.45)*1.27 (1.11 to 1.46)*1.23 (1.10 to 1.37)*
Community
Access to a garden
    Yes11
    No1.18 (0.98 to 1.42)1.15 (0.99 to 1.34)
Area
Country
    England1
    Wales1.15 (1.01 to 1.31)*
    Scotland1.06 (0.91 to 1.24)
    Northern Ireland1.11 (0.97 to 1.28)
Ward type
    Advantaged1
    Disadvantaged1.00 (0.90 to 1.10)
    Ethnic0.98 (0.80 to 1.19)
  • *p⩽0.05.