Adjusted§ | Adjusted + behavioural problems¶ | Adjusted + adult qualifications** | Adjusted + adult social class†† | Adjusted +all‡‡ | |

Men | |||||

Maths z-score^{a} | 23 year binge-drinking†‡ | ||||

7 years | 1.06 (0.98 to 1.14) | 1.02 (0.94 to 1.10) | 0.97 (0.89 to 1.06) | 1.00 (0.92 to 1.09) | 0.93 (0.85 to 1.02) |

Change 7–16 years | 1.24 (1.16 to 1.33) | 1.21 (1.13 to 1.29) | 1.19 (1.10 to 1.27) | 1.20 (1.12 to 1.29) | 1.15 (1.06 to 1.24) |

Maths z-score* | 33 year binge-drinking†‡ | ||||

7 years | 1.03 (0.95 to 1.11) | 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10) | 0.93 (0.85 to 1.01) | 0.97 (0.89 to 1.06) | 0.90 (0.82 to 0.99) |

Change 7–16 years | 1.19 (1.11 to 1.27) | 1.18 (1.10 to 1.26) | 1.11 (1.04 to 1.20) | 1.15 (1.07 to 1.23) | 1.10 (1.02 to 1.18) |

Maths z-score* | 42 year binge-drinking†‡ | ||||

7 years | 1.10 (1.01 to 1.19) | 1.04 (0.96 to 1.14) | 1.03 (0.93 to 1.13) | 1.05 (0.96 to 1.15) | 0.97 (0.88 to 1.07) |

Change 7–16 years | 1.14 (1.06 to 1.22) | 1.09 (1.02 to 1.17) | 1.09 (1.01 to 1.17) | 1.10 (1.02 to 1.19) | 1.04 (0.96 to 1.13) |

Women | |||||

Maths z-score* | 23 year binge-drinking†‡ | ||||

7 years | 0.88 (0.80 to 0.97) | 0.88 (0.80 to 0.97) | 0.94 (0.85 to 1.05) | 0.92 (0.83 to 1.01) | 0.95 (0.85 to 1.06) |

Change 7–16 years | 0.99 (0.91 to 1.07) | 0.99 (0.91 to 1.07) | 1.02 (0.94 to 1.11) | 1.00 (0.92 to 1.09) | 1.02 (0.93 to 1.11) |

Maths z-score* | 33 year binge-drinking†‡ | ||||

7 years | 1.01 (0.92 to 1.12) | 0.99 (0.90 to 1.10) | 0.92 (0.82 to 1.04) | 0.96 (0.86 to 1.06) | 0.89 (0.79 to 1.01) |

Change 7–16 years | 1.11 (1.02 to 1.21) | 1.10 (1.01 to 1.20) | 1.06 (0.97 to 1.16) | 1.08 (0.99 to 1.18) | 1.05 (0.95 to 1.15) |

Maths z-score* | 42 year binge-drinking†‡ | ||||

7 years | 1.24 (1.12 to 1.39) | 1.21 (1.08 to 1.35) | 1.10 (0.97 to 1.25) | 1.19 (1.06 to 1.33) | 1.08 (0.94 to 1.22) |

Change 7–16 years | 1.19 (1.08 to 1.30) | 1.17 (1.06 to 1.28) | 1.13 (1.02 to 1.24) | 1.16 (1.06 to 1.27) | 1.11 (1.01 to 1.23) |

*z-scores are estimated from models of maths trajectories 7-16y. Z-scores are reversed—that is, an increase represents a decline in SDS (rank) for ability.

†Sample with information on drinking, maths score, social class at birth, Rutter score at 16 years, highest qualifications and social class. 3275 men and 3597 women at 23 years; 3752 men and 3990 women at 33 years; 3205 men and 3552 women at 42 years.

‡Binge drinkers compared to light drinkers plus non-drinkers.

§Model 1 = 7 years maths score + change in maths 7–16 years + social class of origin.

¶Model 2 = model 1+ behavioural problems (16 years, Rutter score).

**Model 3 = model 1+ adult qualifications.

††Model 4 = model 1+ adult social class.

‡‡Model 5 = model 1+ behavioural problems (16 years) + adult qualifications + adult social class.