Table 4 Annual delinquency rates (per 1000) before and after the change in the pricing of alcohol, and linear regression interaction (bivariate models) for area characteristics and time in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (the centre of Helsinki excluded except for assault in private homes and domestic violence)
Assaultp ValueAssault in private homesp ValueDomestic violencep ValueCustody due to intoxicationp Value
Before (change %)Before (change %)Before (change %)Before (change %)
Basic education (%)0.0820.5160.1230.823
    Low3.1 (−3.9)1.3 (5.1)2.3 (−6.0)15.6 (−0.7)
    Intermediate5.5 (3.4)2.1 (2.2)4.9 (−2.4)20.7 (10.8)
    High8.7 (19.3)2.2 (7.8)7.8 (−14.5)38.2 (−0.8)
Manual class (%)0.0480. 7530.3830.170
    Low2.5 (0.9)1.3 (−0.8)2.1 (−1.1)11.3 (−6.6)
    Intermediate5.8 (2.0)2.1 (2.1)4.9 (−5.5)22.9 (8.6)
    High8.0 (20.6)2.2 (11.7)8.3 (−10.3)35.2 (2.7)
Unemployment0.2480.9510.0160.994
    Low2.3 (0.3)0.9 (6.6)2.3 (−0.3)9.7 (2.6)
    Intermediate5.8 (6.8)2.0 (3.2)4.7 (−1.7)24.7 (7.6)
    High8.2 (10.2)2.8 (4.9)8.8 (−16.6)30.6 (1.0)
Income0.2480.8550.0220.908
    High2.8 (0.2)1.3 (1.7)2.3 (−3.2)11.5 (−3.4)
    Intermediate6.0 (8.0)2.0 (4.2)4.9 (−1.7)25.7 (9.2)
    Low7.4 (8.2)2.7 (4.4)8.4 (−17.1)26.4 (−1.3)
Single-parent family (%)0.7400.6460.1500.459
    Low2.6 (−0.8)0.8 (12.3)2.2 (1.4)9.9 (3.1)
    Intermediate5.5 (15.5)1.9 (5.8)5.2 (−5.2)23.3 (5.3)
    High8.7 (−6.2)3.4 (−1.3)7.4 (−12.7)34.2 (6.4)
Not owning a home (%)0.1540.7960.5370.151
    Low2.7 (−2.5)1.1 (5.5)2.5 (−2.1)9.5 (1.4)
    Intermediate5.6 (11.6)1.8 (8.2)5.1 (−7.6)23.7 (3.7)
    High8.3 (1.7)3.3 (−4.2)7.5 (−6.6)33.7 (10.1)
Outmigration0.4310.6070.0700.044
    Low3.0 (−1.6)1.2 (5.9)3.3 (−8.3)10.3 (−0.5)
    Intermediate5.4 (8.2)2.2 (4.7)5.9 (−7.9)19.6 (2.4)
    High8.6 (8.7)2.0 (0.3)4.1 (−0.9)45.6 (10.6)
  • Area characteristics were measured as continuous variables in the linear regression.