Table 1 Characteristics of studies of residential mobility in childhood and health outcomes
StudyDesignCountrynOther detailsAge in years (exposure)Residential mobility definition and comparison groupAge range (outcome)Health outcome(s) measured
Schluter et al, 199819Case–controlNZ393 cases 1592 controlsNZ Cot death study<1Away from usual domicile vs at usual domicileInfantSIDS
Stoneman et al, 199920Cross-sectionalUSA70Head Start families1–2½Child’s age/no of moves; time in current residence (regression analyses)PreschoolChild behaviour problems; cognitive competence
Knudson-Cooper and Leuchtag, 198221Case seriesUSA330Hospital burns unit0–5Time since last recorded address changePreschoolBurns—type and severity
DeWit et al, 199822Cross-sectionalCanada3224NLSCY10–11⩾3 Lifetime moves vs fewer movesSchoolPhysical and indirect aggression; property offences
Wood et al, 199323Cross-sectionalUSA99151988 NHIS6–17⩾3 Lifetime moves vs fewer movesSchoolBehaviour problems; growth problems; developmental problems
Simpson and Fowler, 199424Cross-sectionalUSA10 3621988 NHIS6–17⩾3 Lifetime moves vs fewer moves, distance moved, time since moveSchool4 Or more behaviour problems; need for professional psychological help
Verropoulou et al, 200225Longitudinal cohortUK14722nd Generation, 1958 birth cohort5–17No of moves since birth and in past 6 months (regression analyses)SchoolEmotional adjustment
Beyers et al, 200326LongitudinalUSA440US Child Development Project0–11Neighbourhood measures; proportion moved in 5 years and proportion rented homes (regression analyses)SchoolExternalising behaviours
Kelley et al, 200327Cross-sectionalUSA86Military familiesSchoolNo of family moves in child’s lifetime (regression analyses)SchoolBehaviour problems and social adjustment
Crowder and Teachman, 200428Longitudinal panelUSA1361, (6063 person-yrs)Panel study of income dynamics0–AdolescentMoves since 12 years of age (interneighbourhood)Adolescent/youthPremarital teenage pregnancy
DeWit, 199829Cross-sectionalCanada37001991 Ontario Mental Health SupplementYoung adultsNo of moves involving change of school before age 16 years. ⩾3 times vs less oftenAdolescent/youthAge first use of alcohol, marijuana, crack/cocaine, illicit drugs; drug/alcohol-related problems
Adam and Chase-Lansdale, 200230Cross-sectionalUSA267Low income African-American families15–18No of moves in preceding 5 years (regression analyses)Adolescent/youthAdjustment problems—internalising and externalising behaviours
Gilman et al, 200331LongitudinalUSA1089Providence, Rhode Island birth cohortAdolescents⩾3 Moves in lifetime vs fewerAdolescent/youthDepression—onset <14 years and likelihood remission
Stack, 199432Cross-sectionalUSA1287Teenage girls15–19Residential moves (lifetime, cumulative) (regression analyses)Adolescent/youthPremarital sexual behaviour
Mundy et al, 198933Case seriesUSA225Mental health unit inpatientsAdolescentsNo of residential moves recorded in clinical recordAdolescent/youthAdmission to mental health unit
Bures, 200334Cross-sectionalUSA2968US National Survey of midlife development25–74>3 Childhood moves vs fewer childhood movesAdultMeasured self-assessed (general and mental) global health by questionnaire
Juon et al, 200335LongitudinalUSA1242“The Woodlawn Project”; urban African-American6–7No of moves before 6 years of ageAdultMortality rate (over 26 years of study)
Mustard et al, 199636CohortCanada12 590Metropolitan Winnipeg0–4Dichotomous—moved vs not movedHealth service utilisationContinuity of ambulatory health provider for residential “movers” vs “non-movers”
Vuorinen, 199037Cross-sectionalFinland32012 Regional general hospital districts0–16Residential change out of municipality of birthHealth service utilisationNumber of medical service visits in year
Fowler et al, 199338Cross-sectionalUSA17 1101988 NHIS0–17⩾3 Moves in lifetime, vs fewer movesHealth service utilisationLack regular site “preventative care” or “sick child care”; emergency department for sick care
Duchon et al, 199939CohortUSA251 Cases, 292 controlsSheltered accommodationAges of children not specified4 Or more moves (frequent movers) vs lessHealth service utilisationPrimarily use emergency departments for medical care
Providence Plan Group, 200240CohortUSA65 7950–5No of lifetime moves (as per documented address changes in database)Health service utilisationSeeing multiple health providers, primary health contacts, routine blood lead screenings
  • NHIS, National Health Interview Survey; NLSCY, National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth; RM, residential mobility; SIDS, sudden infant death syndrome.