Table 3 Association between stressful working conditions (measured by effort–reward imbalance and job strain) and impaired health (poor self-rated health, angina pectoris on exertion and depression); results from multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratios; 95% CI)
Poor SRH OR (95% CI)Angina on exertion OR (95% CI)Depression OR (95% CI)
High effort–reward imbalance¶
Model I*1.84 (1.33 to 2.54)2.16 (1.54 to 3.04)4.37 (3.04 to 6.28)
Model II†1.85 (1.34 to 2.58)2.17 (1.55 to 3.07)4.70 (3.24 to 6.81)
Model III‡1.56 (1.10 to 2.20)2.04 (1.43 to 2.92)5.05 (3.45 to 7.39)§
Job strain**
Model I*2.03 (1.47 to 2.81)1.49 (1.03 to 2.15)1.98 (1.34 to 2.91)
Model II†1.95 (1.40 to 2.70)1.50 (1.03 to 1.15)1.90 (1.28 to 2.82)
Model III‡1.71 (1.21 to 2.42)1.33 (0.91 to 1.95)1.89 (1.26 to 2.84)§
  • OR, Odds ratio; SRH, self-rated health.

  • *Unadjusted.

  • †Adjusted for age and sex.

  • ‡Adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational grade, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and negative affectivity.

  • §Adjusted for age, gender, education, occupational grade, body mass index, smoking and physical inactivity.

  • ¶Reference: The lower four quintiles of the effort–reward-ratio.

  • **Reference: The three categories “low strain”, “active job” and “passive job”.