Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the sample
Number (%)
Men (n  =  1019)Women (n  =  730)
Age (years)
    45–49264 (25.9)209 (28.6)
    50–54361 (35.4)274 (37.5)
    55–59265 (26.0)188 (25.8)
    60–65129 (12.7)59 (8.1)
Education*
    <10 (low)36 (3.5)52 (7.1)
    11–13415 (40.7)431 (59.0)
    14–17356 (34.9)128 (17.5)
    ⩾18 (high)212 (20.8)119 (16.3)
Occupational grade†
    Higher managerial170 (16.7)62 (8.5)
    Manager397 (39.1)255 (35.0)
    Employee279 (27.5)346 (47.5)
    Self-employed169 (16.7)65 (8.9)
Self-rated health
    Poor–very poor90 (8.8)120 (16.4)
Angina pectoris on exertion
    Yes83 (8.1)91 (12.5)
Depression (>17)‡
    Yes52 (5.1)84 (11.6)
Effort–reward imbalance
    Upper quintile§203 (20.0)145 (19.9)
Job strain
    Yes180 (18.1)162 (22.7)
  • Selected baseline participants in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, Germany (n  =  1749).

  • *Measured in years of education.

  • †Data from four men and two women are missing.

  • ‡Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score over 17 points, indicating depressive syndrome.

  • §Upper quintile of the distribution of the effort–reward ratio, indicating the “high stress” group.