Table 1 Levels and types of interventions to improve health*
Societal (population) levelIndividual level
Physical environmentEnvironmental planning, monitoring, regulationResponsible use of environmental resources
Social environmentPublic advocacy, community mobilisationPromotion of solidarity
Health services environmentResource mobilisation/deploymentEarly recognition of problems regardless of their genesis
Information systems: collection, analysis and dissemination for early identification of problems and iatrogenesis
Personal environmentGenetic engineeringResponsible stewardship of one’s health
  • *Locus of responsibility may vary from one jurisdiction to another but must be explicit and with accountability.

  • Source: Sheridan et al.38