Table 3 Simple linear associations between possible explanatory variables and mental health indicators
VariableDepressive symptomsPerceived stress scale
Mental health
    Depressive symptoms†0.37**
    Perceived stress scale‡1.13**
    Female gender1.882.04*
    Age (years)0.03−0.03
    Marital status
        Not married (reference)
        African (reference)
        Eastern Cape (reference)
        Western Cape−2.910.50
    Number in household0.48*0.24†
Socioeconomic status
        <G7 (reference)
    Regular employment−4.02*−1.27
    Sum of non-employment incomes3.37**0.89***
    Total income past 30 days−1.73*−0.31
    Total income past 30 days (adjusted for household size)−2.52**−0.61
Subjective social status
    Place on community ladder−2.02**−0.78**
    Place on country ladder−1.09**−0.54*
    Place on creditworthiness ladder−1.25**−0.65**
Stressful life events
    Events not incl birth and catastrophe1.42*0.33
    Respondent alone1.11**0.53*
    Respondent with partner−1.11**−0.50*
    Partner/other alone0.520.21
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.10.

  • †Depressive symptoms measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.

  • ‡Perceived stress measured with Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale.31