Table 4 Factors associated with health behaviours and self-reported health, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)
Eating five a dayExercise in last 7 daysNot smokingGood health
OR (CI 95%)p ValueOR (CI 95%)p ValueOR (CI 95%)p ValueOR (95% CI )p Value
Health literacy scores (0–100)1.02 (1.003 to 1.03)0.0161.00 (0.98 to 1.02)0.881.02 (1.0003 to 1.03)0.0461.02 (1.001 to 1.04)0.011
Age1.02 (1.01 to 1.03)0.0020.98 (0.97 to 0.99)0.0001.04 (1.03 to 1.05)0.0000.98 (0.97 to 0.99)0.002
Male0.42 (0.30 to 0.59)0.0001.97 (1.40 to 2.75)0.0000.68 (0.47 to 0.97)0.0330.95 (0.62 to 1.44)0.79
Non-white background0.46 (0.21 to 0.99)0.0460.81 (0.39 to 1.68)0.572.40 (0.95 to 6.01)0.061.62 (0.48 to 5.48)0.44
English not the first language0.82 (0.34 to 2.01)0.671.08 (0.45 to 2.58)0.860.45 (0.14 to 1.39)0.160.40 (0.08 to 2.04)0.27
Education
    A-level and higher qualifications1.000.0221.000.0031.000.0011.000.20
    GCSE and trade apprenticeship0.74 (0.50 to 1.09)0.130.68 (0.45 to 1.02)0.060.66 (0.43 to 1.01)0.060.64 (0.38 to 1.07)0.09
    No formal qualifications0.56 (0.36 to 0.85)0.0070.45 (0.28 to 0.72)0.0010.42 (0.26 to 0.68)0.0000.70 (0.42 to 1.19).19
Annual personal income
    £20 000 or more1.000.0201.000.0241.000.071.000.011
    £10 000–£19 9990.49 (0.32 to 0.77)0.270.51 (0.32 to 0.80)0.0030.88 (0.53 to 1.45)0.600.46 (0.22 to 0.94)0.033
    £0 to £99990.66 (0.42 to 1.02)0.060.62 (0.40 to 0.97)0.0340.62 (0.38 to 1.01)0.050.32 (0.16 to 63)0.001
    Don’t know or refused0.74 (0.43 to 1.26)0.0020.60 (0.34 to 1.05)0.071.18 (0.63 to 2.20)0.600.341 (16 to 0.74)0.006