Table 1 Relationship between functional health literacy and demographic characteristics (mean and standard deviation or number with percentages in brackets)
Demographic variablePer centFunctional health literacy
Adequate (n _ 637)Marginal (n _ 41)Inadequate (n _ 41)
Means (SD) age in years45.2 (17.2)60.2 (20.9)63.9 (19.5)
Gender
    Female58.0373 (89.9)20 (4.8)22 (5.3)
    Male42.0264 (86.8)21 (6.9)19 (6.3)
Ethnicity
    White93.6598 (88.9)39 (5.8)36 (5.3)
    Non-white6.439 (84.8)2 (4.3)5 (10.9)
Language
    English is first language95.5611 (88.9)40 (5.8)36 (5.2)
    English not first language4.526 (81.3)1 (3.1)5 (15.6)
Education completed∗
    A-level or university46.0321 (97.3)5 (1.5)4 (1.2)
    GCSE or trade apprenticeship5.3167 (91.8)10 (5.5)5 (2.7)
    No formal qualifications28.7148 (71.8)26 (12.6)32 (15.5)
Annual personal income
    More than £20 00015.3168 (97.7)3 (1.7)1 (.6)
    £10 000–£19 99934.6176 (93.6)8 (4.3)4 (2.1)
    Up to £999926.1210 (84.3)23 (9.2)16 (6.4)
    Don’t know or refused23.983 (75.5)7 (6..4)20 (18.2)
  • ∗Numbers do not add up to the total due to missing data.