Table 2 Adult outcomes of binge drinking in adolescence
Outcome at 30 yearsnProportions with adult outcomeOR for risk of adult outcomes posed by binge drinking in adolescence
Binge drinking in adolescenceOthersp ValueOR adjusted for socioeconomic factors and sexOR adjusted for socioeconomic status, sex and baseline status where appropriate*
%%OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Professional or managerial social class474939450.0020.7 (0.6 to 0.9)0.001
Alcohol dependency (CAGE high scorer)47751711<0.00011.6 (1.3 to 2.0)<0.0001
Regular alcohol consumption > recommended units per week (14 in females, 21 in males)39944330<0.00011.7 (1.4 to 2.1)<0.0001
Used illicit drugs in past 12 months48122416<0.00011.7 (1.3 to 2.1)<0.00011.4 (1.1 to 1.8)0.008
Heavy smoker (⩾ 11 cigarettes per day)48501912<0.00011.7 (1.3 to 2.1)<0.00011.0 (0.7 to 1.3)0.8
Psychiatric morbidity (Malaise score ⩾ 7)485915140.41.2 (0.9 to 1.6)0.111.4 (1.1 to 1.9)0.03
History of mental health problems since 16 years485224240.71.1 (0.9 to 1.3)0.41.1 (0.9 to 1.4)0.4
History of homelessness since 16 years4481740.0011.6 (1.1 to 2.4)0.02
Conviction (civil or criminal) since 16 years4820147<0.00012.2 (1.6 to 2.9)<0.00011.9 (1.4 to 2.5)<0.0001
History of being permanently excluded from school481220.6<0.00013.9 (1.9 to 8.2)<0.0001
Left school without any qualifications485424200.0021.3 (1.1 to 1.6)0.02
Significant accident since 16 years48525849<0.00011.4 (1.1 to 1.6)0.001
Pregnancy ⩽ 18 years (females only)2185430.60.9 (0.4 to 2.3)0.9
  • The table shows the participants exhibiting each adult outcome as a percentage of the number of participants who reported two or more episodes of binge drinking in the previous 2 weeks in adolescence compared with those who reported one or no episodes (others). ORs are then shown for risk of each adult outcome for two or more episodes of binge drinking compared with one or no episodes. ORs are shown first unadjusted and then adjusted for sex and socioeconomic factors (father’s social class at 16 years, maternal educational attainment at 16 years and own social class at 30 years).

  • *The ORs shown have been adjusted for socioeconomic factors and baseline status where appropriate (models for adult drug use were adjusted for adolescent illicit drug use in the past year; smoking was adjusted for adolescent regular smoking (one or more cigarettes per week); the model for convictions was adjusted for being formally cautioned by the police between the ages of 10 and 16 years); psychiatric morbidity and history of mental health problems were adjusted for adolescent GHQ score. Note that alcohol outcomes were not adjusted for adolescent consumption as these data are shown in table 4.