Table 4 Mean differences, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), in moderate activity among women in the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program
Vigorous activity
Baseline model: mean difference (95% CI)Full model: mean difference (95% CI)GIS model: mean difference (95% CI)
Age (per year)–0.007*** (–0.010 to –0.003–0.007*** (–0.010 to –0.003)
Race/ethnicity
    Hispanic–0.200* (–0.366 to –0.034)–0.197* (–0.363 to –0.031)
    Other race/ethnicity–0.235* (–0.462 to –0.009)–0.234* (–0.460 to –0.008)
    White, non-Hispanic1.001.00
Marital status
    Never married0.088 (–0.088 to 0.265)0.087 (–0.090 to 0.263)
    Previously married0.064 (–0.047 to 0.174)0.064 (–0.047 to 0.174)
    Married1.001.00
Income (per unit increase, range 1–4)0.076** (0.024 to 0.127)0.076** (0.024 to 0.127)
Education (per unit increase, range 1–4)0.171*** (0.112 to 0.230)0.170*** (0.111 to 0.229)
Treatment vs. control city0.141* (0.020 to 0.261)0.141* (0.019 to 0.262)
Survey
    1 (1979–80)1.001.00
    4 (1985–86)0.096 (–0.248 to 0.046)0.091 (–0.058 to 0.239)
    5 (1989–90)–0.101 (–0.052 to 0.243)–0.109 (–0.257 to 0.040)
Neighbourhood SES
    Lower–0.206* (–0.389 to –0.023)–0.039 (–0.213 to 0.134)–0.043 (–0.218 to 0.131)
    Moderate1.001.001.00
    Higher0.106 (–0.044 to 0.256)–0.009 (–0.045 to 0.128)0.003 (–0.135 to 0.140)
Gyms per square mile0.021 (–0.037 to 0.079)
  • Between-neighbourhood variance: 0.1166

  • p value: p<0.0001

  • % explained by neighbourhood SES: 8%

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • Note. Although models were run for each of the variables measuring the availability of PA resources (parks and gyms), only gyms per square mile is presented as a result of space constraints.