Table 3 Mean differences, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), in daily energy expenditure among women in the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program
Daily energy expenditure (kcal/kg/day)
Baseline model: mean difference (95% CI)Full model: mean difference (95% CI)GIS model: mean difference (95% CI)
Age (per year)–0.001*** (–0.002 to –0.001)–0.001*** (–0.002 to –0.001)
Race/ethnicity
    Hispanic0.012 (–0.005 to 0.028)0.012 (–0.004 to 0.027)
    Other race/ethnicity0.008 (–0.014 to 0.030)0.008 (–0.011 to 0.031)
    White, non-Hispanic1.001.00
Marital status
    Never married0.005 (–0.012 to 0.023)0.006 (–0.013 to 0.021)
    Previously married0.003 (–0.007 to 0.014)0.003 (–0.008 to 0.013)
    Married1.001.00
Income (per unit increase, range 1–4)0.002 (–0.003 to 0.007)0.002 (–0.009 to 0.003)
Education (per unit increase, range 1–4)–0.004 (–0.010 to 0.002)–0.004
Treatment vs. control city–0.002 (–0.013 to 0.009)–0.002
Survey
    1 (1979–80)1.001.00
    4 (1985–86)0.018**(0.005 to 0.031)0.018** (0.008 to 0.035)
    5 (1989–90)–0.025** (–0.038 to –0.012)–0.025** (–0.037 to –0.011)
Neighbourhood SES
    Lower0.025** (0.008, 0.041)0.018** (0.003 to 0.034)0.018* (0.004 to 0.035)
    Moderate1.001.001.00
    Higher–0.004 (–0.017, 0.010)–0.002 (–0.014 to 0.010)–0.002 (–0.012 to 0.013)
Gyms per square mile–0.000 (–0.005 to 0.005)
  • Between-neighbourhood variance: 0.000822.

  • p value: p<0.0001

  • % explained by neighbourhood SES: 9%

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • Note. Although models were run for each of the variables measuring the availability of PA resources (parks and gyms), only gyms per square mile is presented as a result of space constraints.