Table 2

 Age adjusted prevalence (%) of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders by gender, living arrangement, and social adversities in childhood, sociodemographic variables, social support variables, and health behaviour, age group 30 to 64 years

VariableWomenMen
Depressive disorder*Anxiety disorder*GHQ⩾4†Depressive disorder‡Anxiety disorder‡GHQ⩾4§
*n = 2460. †n = 2440. ‡n = 2225. §n = 2198.
Living arrangement
    Married74184314
    Cohabiting85202212
    Living with other(s) than a partner1482310520
    Living alone146219824
    p<0.001<0.05NS<0.001<0.001<0.001
Family structure in childhood
    Living with both parents95195415
    Not living with both parents116237519
    p<0.010.0942<0.01NSNSNS
Parental adversity
    No84164313
    ⩾1 adversity127269522
    p<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.0010.0570<0.001
Education
    High85213315
    Medium95195315
    Low96185617
    pNSNSNSNS<0.05NS
Urbanisation
    Rural104206415
    Semi-urban85184415
    Urban106206516
    pNSNSNSNSNSNS
Unemployment
    No95185314
    Yes13824111334
    p<0.05<0.05<0.05<0.001<0.001<0.001
Having children
    ⩾1 child95195415
    No children117206518
    pNS0.0877NSNSNS<0.05
Emotional help from others
    ⩾2 persons84163313
    ⩾1 person116237417
    no help192047151341
    p<0.05<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.01<0.001
Practical help from others
    ⩾2 persons74173313
    ⩾1 person116227517
    no help201847141032
    p<0.01<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.01<0.001
Social contacts
    Frequent84184313
    Rare149257520
    p<0.001<0.001<0.01<0.01<0.05<0.001
Smoking
    Non-smoker94195314
    Former smoker95205315
    Current smoker117206718
    pNS<0.05NSNS<0.001NS
Alcohol consumption
    no alcohol1051910719
    1–23 portions/week(1–15 in women)85194313
    ⩾24 portions/week(⩾16 in women)169246623
    p<0.05NSNS<0.001<0.001<0.001
Exercise
    Yes84184414
    No137248420
    p<0.001<0.01<0.001<0.01NS<0.001
All95195416