Table 1

 Occupational based socioeconomic indicators: theoretical basis and group allocation

Prestige, skillsWorking relationsSocial distance (in lifestyle, social interactions, resources)Property of means of production and class relations—social class
Registrar general’s social class Erikson and Goldthorpe class scheme Cambridge Scale Wright
I Professional II Intermediate III-N Skilled non-manual III-M Skilled manual IV Partly skilled V Unskilled VI Armed forcesI Higher grade professionals, administrators and officials; managers in large industrial establishments; large proprietors II Lower grade professionals, administrators and officials; higher grade technicians; managers in small industrial establishments; supervisors of non-manual employees IIIa Routine non-manual: higher Continuous scale, can be arbitrarily grouped1 Capitalist 2 Small employer 3 Petty bourgeoisie 4 Expert manager 5 Skilled manager 6 Non-skilled manager 7 Expert supervisor
IIIb Routine non-manual: lowerI Least advantaged8 Skilled supervisor
IVa Small proprietors with employeesII9 Non-skilled supervisor
IVb Self employed without employeesIII10 Experts
IVc Farmers/smallholdersIV11 Skilled workers
V Foremen and technicians… Most advantaged12 Non-skilled workers
VI Skilled manual
VIIa Semi and unskilled manual
VIIb Agricultural workers
Education and income
American census classification UK National Statistics classification (NS-SEC) Lombardi,et al
I Managerial and professional1 Higher managerial and professional employersUnderproletariat (unemployed and seasonal workers)
II Technical, sales and administrative support2 Lower managerial and professionalTypical proletariat (unskilled and semiskilled workers in manual occupations)
III Service occupations3 Intermediate employeesAtypical proletariat (unskilled and semiskilled in commerce and services)
IV Farming, forestry, fishing4 Small employers and own account workersTraditional small bourgeoisie (self employed, small business owners)
V Precision production, craft, repair5 Lower supervisory, craft and related employeesNew small bourgeoisie (university-trained professionals) Bourgeoisie (large business owners)
VI 6 Employees in semi-routine occupations
7 Employees in routine occupations
8 Never worked and long term unemployed