Table 1

 Risk factors identified in the UK government’s 1999 report on teenage pregnancy and comparable factors in the Randomised Intervention of Pupil Peer-Led sex Education study

Factors identifiedResearch cited in the government reportComparable factor in RIPPLE study
ReferenceStudy limitations
BMRB, British Market Research Bureau; RIPPLE, Randomised Intervention of Pupil Peer-Led sex Education; STI, sexually transmitted infection.
Socioeconomic status
    Low social class, non owner-occupier housingBotting et al4, 1998Pre-1989 dataNon-privately owned housing
Family background/relationships
    Children of teenage mothersKiernan5, 1995Pre-1989 dataMother teenager when participant was born
    Poor communication with parentsWellings et al6, 1996; Ingham and Van Zessen7, 1998Cross-sectional; cross-sectionalDifficult communication with mother/father, female/male guardian
Expectations of the future/perceptions of peers
    Not being in education, training and work post age 16 yearsBynner and Parsons8, 1999Pre-1989 dataLack of expectation of education by age 20 years
Expectation of being parent by age 20 years
    Peer pressure to have sex earlyWellings et al6, 1996Cross- sectionalBelieve half or more peers having sex
Individual risk behaviours
    Low educational attainment, truancyInclude, Bynner and Parsons 9 1998; Croydon Community Trust10, 1999Cross-sectionalIntent to skip school
    Alcohol useHealth Education Authority/BMRB11, 1998Cross-sectionalDrunk monthly or more
Sexual health knowledge
    Low knowledge about sexWellings et al6, 1996Cross-sectionalLow knowledge of STIs and low knowledge of timing of emergency contraceptive pill Inability to identify sexual health services
    Non-school source of information about sexWellings et al6, 1996Cross-sectionalMain source of information on sex does not include school