Table 2

 Multivariate logistic regression relating country indicators to mortality groups

Group CovariatesAdult mortality, menChild mortality, under-five
Mid-level (group 2) v better-off (group 1)Worse-off (group 3) v better-off (group 1)Mid-level (group 2) v better-off (group 1)Worse-off (group 3) v better-off (group 1)
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
GNI, gross national income; PPP, purchasing power parity; TB, tuberculosis.
*Approaching borderline significance at p<0.1; †significant at p<0.05 level; ‡significant at p<0.01 level; §significant at p<0.001 level.
Income category
    GNI per capita, PPP ($)0.99§ (0.99 to 0.99)1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.99§ (0.99 to 0.99)0.99 (0.98 to 1.00)0.99§ (0.99 to 0.99)1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.99§ (0.99 to 0.99)0.76 (0)
Education outcome
    Adult illiteracy rate, men (%)1.05‡ (1.01 to 1.08)1.06 (0.87 to 1.30)1.09§ (1.05 to 1.13)1.15 (0.73 to 1.80)1.11§ (1.06 to 1.16)0.89 (0.64 to 1.24)1.19§ (1.12 to 1.27)5.49×100.07 (0)
    Adult illiteracy rate, women (%)1.03‡ (1.01 to 1.05)0.97 (0.84 to 1.10)1.05§ (1.02 to 1.07)1.05 (0.74 to 1.47)1.06§ (1.03 to 1.09)1.15 (0.92 to 1.43)1.12§ (1.07 to 1.17)0.16 (0)
Health expenditure
    Health expenditure per capita ($)0.99§ (0.99 to 0.99)0.98 (0.96 to 1.00)0.98§ (0.97 to 0.99)0.97 (0.81 to 1.17)0.98§ (0.98 to 0.99)0.89* (0.77 to 1.02)0.81§ (0.72 to 0.90)2.90×10−8 (0)
    Health expenditure, public (%)0.71‡ (0.57 to 0.88)2.78† (1.11 to 6.92)0.55§ (0.40 to 0.76)2.33* (0.06 to 8.81)0.65§ (0.51 to 0.83)10.75 (0.85 to 135.69)0.43§ (0.28 to 0.65)0.00 (0)
Environmental health factor
    Improved water source (%)0.93§ (0.90 to 0.95)0.95 (0.89 to 1.02)0.91§ (0.88 to 0.94)1.07 (0.80 to 1.43)0.92§ (0.89 to 0.95)0.98 (0.84 to 1.13)0.87§ (0.83 to 0.91)1.69×10−6 (0)
    Improved sanitation facilities (%)0.94§ (0.92 to 0.97)1.00 (0.94 to 1.05)0.93§ (0.91 to 0.96)1.01 (0.92 to 1.12)0.93§ (0.91 to 0.96)0.97 (0.89 to 1.07)0.91§ (0.88 to 0.94)89.78 (0)
Health condition
    TB incidence (%)1.01§ (1.01 to 1.02)1.00* (0.99 to 1.02)1.04§ (1.02 to 1.05)1.04 (0.96 to 1.12)1.02§ (1.01 to 1.03)1.01* (0.99 to 1.03)1.02§ (1.01 to 1.03)0.61 (0.99 to 1.04)
    HIV prevalence (%)2.71§ (1.51 to 4.88)1.41 (0.60 to 3.31)6.43§ (3.16 to 13.08)18.62* (0.30 to 1135)3.12§ (1.86 to 5.25)2.24* (0.75 to 6.71)3.10§ (1.84 to 5.21)8.83×1019 (0)
n82828282
Log likelihood−30.039442−30.039442−9.0381474−9.0381474
Pseudo-R20.65720.65720.89270.8927