Table 1

 Country indicators by mortality groups

Country indicatorsAdult mortality (men)Under-five mortality
Group 1 (better-off)Group 2 (mid-level)Group 3 (worse-off)Group 1 (better-off)Group 2 (mid-level)Group 3 (worse-off)
Values are given in mean or percentage (95% CI).
CPI, consumer price index; GDP, gross domestic product; GNI, gross national income; PPP, purchasing power parity; TB, tuberculosis.
*Significant at p<0.05 when compared with group 1; †significant at p<0.01 when compared with group 1; ‡significant at p<0.001 when compared with group 1.
Health
    Mortality, per 1000173.5 (77.2 to 269.8)331.7‡ (216.4 to 447.0)583.7‡ (435.9 to 731.5)20.6 (−6.4 to 47.6)105.6‡ (53.5 to 157.7)207.2‡ (130.5 to 283.9)
Poverty and income
    GNI per capita, PPP ($)12 772.1 (10 774.0 to 14 770.2)3700.7‡ (2636.8 to 4764.6)2058.5‡ (1113.6 to 3003.4)12 085.8 (10 229.7 to 13 941.9)2659.7‡ (1954.9 to 3364.5)1011.0‡ (810.5 to 1211.5)
    GNI per capita, Atlas method9540.7 (7416.5 to 11 664.9)1460.8‡ (732.7 to 2188.9)617.8‡ (303.3 to 932.3)8848.0 (6861.2 to 10 834.8)812.3‡ (565.3 to 1059.3)255.7‡ (190.4 to 321.0)
    % Living on <$1 per day9.7 (5.5 to 13.9)18.0 (11.1 to 24.9)46.4‡ (35.3 to 57.5)8.4 (5.0 to 11.8)25.5‡ (17.6 to 33.4)53.3‡ (42.0 to 64.6)
    % Living in the lowest income quintile7.4 (6.3 to 8.5)6.0 (5.5 to 6.5)2.4* (2.4 to 2.4)7.3 (6.1 to 8.5)4.8* (−0.3 to 9.9)No data
    Gini coefficient40.7 (37.4 to 44.0)37.9 (34.2 to 41.6)46.2 (16.3 to 76.1)40.2 (37.2 to 43.2)37.5 (33.8 to 41.2)46.2 (16.3 to 76.1)
Education outcome
    Adult illiteracy rate, men (%)10.2 (7.5 to 12.9)19.9† (13.3 to 26.5)32.6‡ (25.1 to 40.1)8.3 (6.1 to 10.5)24.4‡ (18.9 to 29.9)41.8‡ (33.4 to 50.2)
    Adult illiteracy rate, women (%)17.0 (12.6 to 21.4)32.5‡ (22.2 to 42.8)47.0‡ (36.8 to 57.2)13.8 (10.3 to 17.3)38.2‡ (29.4 to 47.0)63.3‡ (54.8 to 71.8)
Health expenditure, services and use
    Health expenditure per capita ($)688.7 (505.6 to 871.8)91.8‡ (45.1 to 138.5)34.0‡ (10.9 to 57.1)649.8 (481.6 to 818.0)56.1‡ (31.9 to 80.3)9.9‡ (7.8 to 12.0)
    Health expenditure, private (% of GDP)2.4 (2.1 to 2.7)1.6* (1.2 to 2.0)2.2 (1.7 to 2.7)2.4 (2.1 to 2.7)2.0 (1.5 to 2.5)1.7 (1.3 to 2.1)
    Health expenditure, public (% of GDP)3.9 (3.6 to 4.2)2.9† (2.5 to 3.3)2.3‡ (1.9 to 2.7)3.9 (3.6 to 4.2)2.7‡ (2.2 to 3.2)2.0‡ (1.7 to 2.3)
    Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)90.3 (83.5 to 97.1)57.5 (42.0 to 73.0)42.5 (30.4 to 54.6)88.7 (81.0 to 96.4)62.0 (48.0 to 76.0)33.8 (25.5 to 42.1)
    Inpatient admission rate13.0 (10.9 to 15.1)18.0 (13.6 to 22.4)10.1 (−27.9 to 48.1)14.2 (12.2 to 16.2)13.9 (−4.4 to 32.2)10.1 (−27.9 to 48.1)
    Outpatient visits4.9 (3.7 to 6.1)5.5 (3.0 to 8.0)0.6 (−0.6 to 1.8)5.5 (4.4 to 6.6)0.6 (−0.1 to 1.3)0.6 (−0.6 to 1.8)
    Doctors6.0 (4.8 to 7.2)8.1 (6.0 to 10.2)1.3 (0.9 to 1.7)7.1 (5.9 to 8.3)5.4 (2.8 to 8.0)1.2 (0.9 to 1.5)
    Hospital beds4.3 (3.5 to 5.1)6.7 (4.7 to 8.7)0.7 (0.0 to 1.4)4.9 (4.1 to 5.7)4.1 (1.1 to 7.1)0.7 (−0.4 to 1.8)
Environmental health factors
    Improved water source (% with access)89.8 (87.1 to 92.5)70.5‡ (63.2 to 77.8)60.6‡ (53.6 to 67.6)89.9 (87.3 to 92.5)70.5‡ (64.4 to 76.6)51.8‡ (43.8 to 59.8)
    Improved sanitation facilities (% with access)87.3 (82.7 to 91.9)60.5‡ (51.0 to 70.0)50.4‡ (38.9 to 61.9)88.5 (84.6 to 92.4)58.6‡ (49.7 to 67.5)42.8‡ (30.9 to 54.7)
Health conditions and interventions
    Incidence of TB56.9 (42.9 to 70.9)189.0‡ (156.6 to 221.4)396.0‡ (348.6 to 443.4)59.5 (46.9 to 72.1)288.4‡ (232.4 to 344.4)325.9‡ (295.4 to 356.4)
    Prevalence of HIV0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)1.0 (0.6 to 1.4)11.2‡ (7.3 to 15.1)0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)6.1‡ (2.7 to 9.5)5.5‡ (3.7 to 7.3)
    Immunisation, measles (% of children88.5 (SD 2.2) (86.3 to 90.7)77.1‡ (SD 6.1) (71.0 to 83.2)61.5‡ (SD 6.9) (54.6 to 68.4)89.9 (SD 1.9) (88.0 to 91.8)72.4‡ (SD 5.7) (66.7 to 78.1)55.3‡ (SD 7.7) (47.6 to 63.0)
    Prevalence of smoking, men (%)39.1 (36.2 to 42.0)45.6 (40.8 to 50.4)37.6 (22.4 to 52.8)40.6 (37.8 to 43.4)43.9 (37.9 to 49.9)29.2 (7.6 to 50.8)
    Prevalence of smoking, women (%)16.5 (14.0 to 19.0)15.7 (11.7 to 19.7)12.5 (4.9 to 20.1)17.0 (14.7 to 19.3)13.4 (9.1 to 17.7)12.7 (−3.7 to 29.1)
Environment
    Rural population (% of total population)35.9 (31.9 to 39.9)54.6‡ (48.9 to 60.3)67.2‡ (60.6 to 73.8)35.3 (31.7 to 38.9)61.5‡ (56.2 to 66.8)70.2‡ (64.5 to 75.9)
Energy production and use
    Electric power consumption (kWh per capita)4675 (3570.0 to 5780.0)1316.2† (870.2 to 1762.2)441.5† (−389.5 to 1272.5)4457.8 (3442.2 to 5473.4)830.4† (392.8 to 1268.0)57.6* (36.6 to 78.6)
Economy
    Household final consumption expenditure per capita growth (%)2.5 (1.2 to 3.8)2.8 (−1.1 to 6.7)1.0 (−3.4 to 5.4)3.1 (1.8 to 4.4)2.6 (−1.3 to 6.5)−2.2 (−7.7 to 3.3)
    GDP per capita, PPP ($)13 066.8 (11 016.5 to 15 117.1)3831.7‡ (2730.3 to 4933.1)2096.0‡ (1138.6 to 3053.4)12 305.1 (10 410.2 to 14 200.0)2745.6 (2015.9 to 3475.3)1058.0 (837.4 to 1278.6)
Trade
    Trade in goods (% of GDP)68.3 (59.7 to 76.9)76.1 (65.1 to 87.1)55.3 (42.8 to 67.8)68.9 (61.4 to 76.4)70.8 (59.8 to 81.8)50.0 (35.1 to 64.9)
Monetary
    Food production index (1989–91 = 100)119.6 (112.9 to 126.3)116.7 (104.8 to 128.6)118.1 (109.8 to 126.4)115.2 (108.2 to 122.2)123.9 (115.2 to 132.6)127.6 (115.5 to 139.7)
    CPI193.5 (111.6 to 275.4)357.8 (78.3 to 637.3)18 333.4 (−14 710.2 to 51 377.0)251.4 (132.7 to 370.1)178.4 (132.5 to 224.3)25 035.2* (−20 992.4 to 71 062.8)
External debt
    Total debt service (% of GNI)5.7 (4.9 to 6.5)5.9 (4.5 to 7.3)4.1 (2.2 to 6.0)6.3 (5.5 to 7.1)4.5 (3.3 to 5.7)4.8 (2.4 to 7.2)
Military expenditure
    Military expenditure (% of GDP)2.7 (2.2 to 3.2)2.2 (1.4 to 3.0)3.1 (2.1 to 4.1)2.7 (2.2 to 3.2)2.1 (1.7 to 2.5)3.2 (1.8 to 4.6)
Communication
    Fixed line and mobile phone subscribers (per 1000 people)532.7 (447.7 to 617.7)147.2‡ (88.6 to 205.8)36.9‡ (8.5 to 65.3)519.0 (440.7 to 597.3)60.1‡ (39.4 to 80.8)8.4‡ (3.6 to 13.2)
Information Technology
    Internet users3 563 084.4 (989 602.9 to 6 136 565.9)256 830.4 (7677.7 to 505 983.1)108 724.2 (−59 695.6 to 277 144.0)3 368 419.7 (952 600.4 to 5 784 239.0)217 637.5 (−53 247.8 to 488 522.8)17 650.1 (5180.8 to 30 119.4)
    Personal computers (per 1000 people)149.9 (118.3 to 181.5)27.5‡ (14.1 to 40.9)9.7‡ (2.2 to 17.2)143.1 (113.4 to 172.8)13.2‡ (7.7 to 18.7)2.8‡ (1.4 to 4.2)