Table 3

 Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of smoking by neighbourhood and individual characteristics in men and women in the GLOBE study, the Netherlands, 1991

Model 1Model 2
OR* (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
*Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, education, occupation, and employment status; model 2 additionally adjusted for neighbourhood socioeconomic environment.
Neighbourhood stress
3 (high)1.63 (1.21 to 2.21)1.57 (1.11 to 2.21)
41.43 (1.09 to 1.90)1.39 (1.00 to 1.92)
51.57 (1.19 to 2.07)1.53 (1.11 to 2.10)
61.49 (1.14 to 1.96)1.46 (1.07 to 1.99)
71.29 (0.98 to 1.71)1.27 (0.95 to 1.71)
81.15 (0.71 to 1.86)1.15 (0.71 to 1.86)
9 (low)1.001.00
Random neighbourhood variance (SE.)0.032 (0.014)0.032 (0.014)
Random individual level variance (SE)0.994 (0.015)0.994 (0.015)
Quality of physical living environment
1 (poor)1.05 (0.91 to 1.21)0.98 (0.84 to 1.14)
20.99 (0.87 to 1.14)0.97 (0.85 to 1.11)
3 (good)1.001.00
Random neighbourhood variance (SE)0.039 (0.015)0.036 (0.014)
Random individual level variance (SE)0.993 (0.015)0.993 (0.015)
Police attention required
1 (high)1.21 (1.05 to 1.40)1.15 (0.98 to 1.34)
21.16 (1.01 to 1.34)1.14 (0.98 to 1.32)
3 (low)1.001.00
Random neighbourhood variance (SE)0.037 (0.015)0.035 (0.014)
Random individual level variance (SE)0.993 (0.015)0.994 (0.015)
Population density
1 (high)1.28 (1.08 to 1.52)1.21 (1.00 to 1.46)
21.10 (0.94 to 1.30)1.07 (0.90 to 1.27)
3 (low)1.001.00
Random neighbourhood variance (95% CI)0.036 (0.014)0.035 (0.014)
Random individual level variance (95% CI)0.993 (0.015)0.993 (0.015)
Noise pollution from traffic
1 (high)1.18 (1.03 to 1.36)1.17 (1.01 to 1.36)
21.04 (0.93 to 1.17)1.03 (0.91 to 1.17)
3 (low)1.001.00
Random neighbourhood variance (95% CI)0.037 (0.015)0.033 (0.014)
Random individual level variance (95% CI)0.993 (0.015)0.994 (0.015)
Problems meeting ends financially
Much3.07 (2.48 to 3.81)3.05 (2.46 to 3.79)
Little1.52 (1.36 to 1.70)1.52 (1.36 to 1.70)
No1.001.00
Random neighbourhood variance (SE)0.036 (0.015)0.035 (0.014)
Random individual level variance (SE)0.992 (0.015)0.993 (0.015)