Table 1

 Summary of studies providing measures of paternal discrepancy stratified into disputed paternity tests and those undertaken for other reasons

CountryPopulation*Sample SizePD estimate % (95% CIs)†Method‡Bias§Reference
* All populations in “other testing” are after birth. †CI, confidence intervals. 95%CIs were not included in most papers reporting levels of PD. Here, we have calculated all confidence intervals based on the sample size and percentage included in the table. However, this does not take into account sampling and other methodological variations between studies. 95%CIs have not been calculated for behaviour based estimates as these have been published as ranges. ‡ Blood and other markers methods usually rely on ABO and rhesus blood groupings or human leucocyte antigen differences. In studies using these methodologies calculations of PD prevalence often include a corrective factor to account for discrepancies that remain undetected. With DNA tests polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism are commonly used and PD detection rates are usually sensitive enough to require little or no correction. § Bias is identified as (+) = likely to overestimate PD and (−) = likely to underestimate PD. All disputed paternity testing is likely to recruit individuals who already suspect PD and results exaggerate population levels. Genetic screening for health reasons is likely to be avoided by those concerned that PD will be exposed and consequently may underestimate PD. Not known is entered next to studies where direction of any bias is unclear. ¶ Behaviour based estimates rely on questionnaires rather than biomolecular markers to estimate PD.
Disputed paternity testing
USAAfter birth20029.0 (22.7 to 35.3)Blood and other markersMarsters, 195762
SwedenAfter birth391326.1 (24.7 to 27.5)Blood and other markersValentin, 198063
USAAfter birth250025.5 (23.8 to 27.2)Blood and other markersHoutz et al, 198264
USAAfter birth139325.8 (23.5 to 28.1)Blood and other markersMickey et al, 198665
FinlandAfter birth2634.6 (15.0 to 54.2)DNA testingHelminen et al, 198866
South AfricaAfter birth212438.2 (36.1 to 40.3)Blood and other markersDu Toit et al, 198932
Mostly UKAfter birth170216.6 (14.9 to 18.4)DNA testingJeffreys et al, 199167
FinlandAfter birth3515.2 (2.1 to 26.5)DNA testingsuspected non-paternity (+)Helminen et al, 199268
GermanyAfter birth25616.8 (12.2 to 21.4)DNA testingKrawczak et al, 199369
USAPrenatal3753.0 (37.2 to 70.9)DNA testingStrom et al, 199670
USAAfter birth75337.0 (33.6 to 40.5)DNA testingStrom et al, 199670
RussiaAfter birth2114.0 (0 to 30.6)DNA testingMolyaka et al, 199771
UKAfter birth1612213.0 (12.5 to 13.5)DNA testingBoardman F, 199872
PortugalAfter birth8327.7 (17.9 to 37.5)DNA testingGeada et al, 200073
PortugalAfter birth79029.8 (26.6 to 32.9)DNA testingGeada et al, 200073
USA and EuropeanAfter birth31049029.1 (28.9 to 29.3)Mixed methodsAmerican Association of Blood Banks, 200248
Other testing
UKSouthern English families25783.7 (3.0 to 4.4)Blood and other markersnot knownEdwards, 195774
USAUndisputed paternity tests6718.0 (8.5 to 27.3)Blood and other markersnot knownSussman and Schatkin, 195775
USAMichigan white sample14171.4 (0.8 to 2.0)Blood and other markersnot knownSchacht and Gershowitz, 196376
USAMichigan black sample52310.1 (7.5 to 12.7)Blood and other markersnot knownSchacht and Gershowitz, 196376
USACalifornian white sample69602.7 (2.3 to 3.1)Blood and other markersnot knownPeritz and Rust, 197277
UKSouthern English families20030.0 (23.6 to 36.4)Blood and other markerspoor test sensitivity (−)Philipp, 197378
South AmericaYanomama tribe1329.0 (4.1 to 14.1)Blood and other markersnot knownNeel and Weiss, 197579
USAHawaiian families28392.3 (1.7 to 2.8)Blood and other markersnon-participation in sample (−)Ashton, 198080
FranceScreening and paternity tests3007.0 (4.1 to 9.9)Blood and other markerssome suspected non-paternity (+)Salmon et al, 198081
New ZealandTokelau families19834.0 (3.1 to 4.9)Blood and other markersnot knownLathrop et al, 198382
MexicoFamilies with new borns2172.9 (0.6 to 5.0)Blood and other markersnot knownPeñaloza, 198683
UKCystic fibrosis screening5211.4 (0.4 to 2.3)DNA testingnon-participation in sample (−)Brock and Shrimpton, 199115
FranceGenetic screening (various)3622.8 (1.1 to 4.5)DNA testingnon-participation in sample (−)Le Roux et al, 199284
CanadaHaemophilia B screening254.0 (0 to 12.3)DNA testingnon-participation in sample (−)Poon et al, 199385
SwitzerlandCystic fibrosis/bone marrow screening16070.8 (0.4 to 1.3)Mixed methodsnon-participation in sample (−)Sasse et al, 199486
MexicoNuevo Leon new borns39611.8 (8.7 to 15.1)Blood and other markersnot knownCerda-Flores et al, 199914
UKMultiple sclerosis screening7441.6 (0.7 to 2.5)DNA testingnon-participation in sample (−)Chataway et al, 199987
Behavioural estimates¶
UKMagazine readers27086.9 to 13.8Behaviour based estimatesample composition (+)Bellis and Baker 199088
USACollege undergraduates28513.0 to 20.0Behaviour based estimatenot knownGaulin et al, 199789