Table 1

 Risk factor prevalence

Social class of chief income earner (p<0.0001)Scottish (n = 2362)English (n = 3702)
*Waist-hip ratio values were classified, taking account of sex. Male waist-hip groups 1: 1, <0.80; 2, 0.80–0.84; 3, 0.85–0.89; 4, 0.90–0.94; 5, 0.95–0.99; 6, 1.00+. Female waist-hip groups 1: 1, <0.70; 2, 0.70–0.74; 3, 0.75–0.79; 4, 0.80–0.84; 5, 0.85–0.89; 6, 0.90+. SE, standard error. †The GHQ12 detects possible psychiatric morbidity. A score between 0 and 12 can be calculated and a threshold score of 4+ can be used to identify informants with a potential psychiatric disorder.
I and II83035.1146439.5
IIINM36715.541811.3
IIIM63626.9111930.2
IV and V52922.470118.9
Employment status (p = 0.0006)
Employed110146.6192452.0
Unemployed582.5721.9
Retired81934.7114831.0
Other economically inactive38416.355815.1
Summary physical activity level (p<0.0001)
Low109246.2141138.1
Medium70329.8126134.1
High56724.0103027.8
Smoking status (p<0.0001)
Never smoked87937.2132435.8
Used to smoke occasionally813.42246.0
Used to smoke regularly67528.6133135.9
Current smoker: <10 a day974.11885.1
Current smoker 10–20 a day29112.33248.7
Current smoker >20 a day33914.43128.4
Alcohol consumption (p<0.0001)
1–21 units per week132656.1220259.5
22–34 units per week2098.837210.0
35+ units per week1697.22907.8
Never drunk/occasional/<1 unit a week51321.770018.9
Former drinker1456.11383.7
Waist hip ratio* (p = 0.6035)
Group 1371.6651.8
Group 22118.93449.3
Group 357524.486923.5
Group 474131.4116031.3
Group 548420.581221.9
Group 631313.345112.2
Mean fibrinogen (g/l) (p<0.0001) 2.95(SE) 0.012.83(SE) 0.01
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) (p = 0.6253) 3.87(SE) 0.133.69(SE) 0.11
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) (p = 0.6436) 1.46(SE) 0.011.45(SE) 0.01
C reactive protein (mg/l) (p = 0.3042) 5.93(SE) 0.025.94(SE) 0.02
Mean systolic BP (mm Hg) (p = 0.3115) 138.98(SE) 0.41139.51(SE) 0.32
Mean diastolic BP (mm Hg) (p<0.0001) 76.54(SE) 0.2477.89(SE) 0.20
Height (cm) (p = 0.0158) 165.77(SE) 0.19166.36(SE) 0.15
Breathlessness (p<0.0001)
None161168.2273073.8
Grade 146419.662917.0
Grade 228712.23429.2
Phlegm (p<0.0001)
Morning34514.63689.9
Other110.5200.5
None200584.9331489.5
Wheezing (p = 0.0636)
Wheeze51321.773119.7
No wheeze184978.3297180.3
Psychological distress (p = 0.0012)†
GHQ score 0143260.6241465.2
1–357824.581722.1
4+35314.947212.7