Table 3

 Sensitivity tests for fixed effects regression models of infant mortality rates for the 27 states of Brazil, 1990–2002

VariableInteraction effectsImmunisation coverage†Lagged PSF (−1 year)Stratified by region (N, NE ; S, SE, CW)
Model 5Model 6Model 7Model 8‡Model 9§
Standard errors in parentheses; year and state fixed effects not shown. *Significant (p<0.05); **significant (p<0.01). †Covers the period 1994–2002 only (because of missing immunisation data). ‡Results for the 16 states in the north and north east regions only. §Results for the 11 states in the south, south east, and central west regions only.
Family Health Program−0.143**−0.087**−0.142**−0.047**
(% of population)(0.021)(0.014)(0.025)(0.015)
Family Health Program−0.194**
(1 year lag)(0.023)
Access to clean water−0.103**−0.114**−0.116**−0.097*0.007
(% population)(0.039)(0.040)(0.040)(0.042)(0.034)
Sewerage access0.0380.061**0.059*0.052−0.002
(% population)(0.026)(0.019)(0.025)(0.028)(0.021)
Mean income0.012*0.017**0.017**0.0030.002
(in constant R$)(0.005)(0.005)(0.005)(0.006)(0.003)
Female illiteracy0.545**0.509**0.505**0.385**0.139
(% women >15 years)(0.102)(0.092)(0.099)(0.112)(0.095)
Fertility1.877*0.6252.785**4.635**3.718**
(mean number children/woman)(0.859)(0.898)(0.913)(1.147)(1.132)
Physicians−1.886−0.719−0.272−5.966**1.117
(per 10000 population)(1.427)(1.001)(1.337)(2.067)(0.693)
Nurses−0.4220.133−0.327−0.4340.523**
(per 10000 population)(0.232)(0.207)(0.229)(0.307)(0.119)
Hospital beds−1.416**−1.634**−2.017**0.006−0.790*
(per 1000 population)(0.531)(0.482)(0.521)(0.614)(0.342)
High diarrhoea mortality0.993*
(⩾10% of child deaths)(0.471)
PSF×diarrhoea interaction−0.136**
(0.036)
High ARI mortality−1.659**
(⩾9% of child deaths)(0.465)
PSF×ARI interaction0.265
(0.195)
Tuberculosis immunisation−0.001
(% of children covered)(0.010)
Measles immunisation−0.008
(% of children covered)(0.010)
Constant39.859**35.846**35.645**76.133**38.206**
(5.201)(5.531)(5.316)(6.583)(5.297)
Observations351225324208143
Number of states2727271611
R2 (within)0.9130.8990.9020.9440.979