Table 1

 Mean values for Brazilian States 1990–2002 (n = 27)

VariableStatisticYearChange 1990–2002
199019962002
*Significant difference 1996 compared with 1990 (p<0.05). †Significant difference 2002 compared with 1996 (p<0.05). ‡Significant difference 2002 compared with 1990 (p<0.05). ¶Immunisation coverage may exceed 100%. NA, data not available; ARI, acute respiratory infections.
Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births)mean49.7136.22*28.91†−20.79‡
(SD)(20.32)(14.90)(11.36)
Coverage of Family Health Program (%)mean0.001.82*36.06†36.06‡
(SD)(3.08)(17.90)
Households with access to clean water supply (%)mean62.4775.41*82.13†19.66‡
(SD)(21.82)(17.59)(15.07)
Households with access to sewerage (%)mean39.7347.5754.05†14.32‡
(SD)(23.26)(23.73)(21.44)
Income per capita (in constant 2001 R$)mean284.26307.58323.7239.46
(SD)(134.86)(114.01)(124.5)
Female illiteracy rate (%)mean22.1116.94*13.60†−8.51‡
(SD)(10.71)(8.52)(6.84)
Fertility (average number children per woman)mean3.352.75*2.40†−0.95‡
(SD)(0.84)(0.54)(0.49)
Physicians per 10000 populationmean0.820.97*1.07†0.25‡
(SD)(0.55)(0.62)(0.66)
Hospital beds per 1000 populationmean3.063.012.40†−0.65‡
(SD)(1.00)(0.81)(0.55)
Nurses per 10000 populationmean2.313.01*4.74†2.42‡
(SD)(2.55)(2.51)(2.21)
Proportionate mortality from diarrhoea (% of all deaths of children under 5 years)mean12.277.32*4.83†−7.44‡
(SD)(4.20)(2.98)(2.47)
Proportionate mortality from ARI (% of all deaths of children under 5 years)mean9.487.44*5.32†−3.49‡
(SD)(2.50)(2.13)(1.57)
Immunisation coverage (TB)¶ (% of children under 5)meanNA104.68113.01†13.27†
(SD)(14.68)(8.48)
Immunisation coverage (measles)¶ (% of children under 5)meanNA76.1096.59†20.49†
(SD)(14.09)(12.14)