Table 4

 Significance level (defined by dividing parameters by their standard errors) of place effects measured across continuous space on healthcare utilisation, estimated from multilevel models with people nested within municipalities or broad areas, and spatial mixed models, France, 1998 and 2000

Municipality level multilevel modelBroad area level multilevel modelSpatial mixed model
Outcome: no regular primary care physician
Socioeconomic status of the context, fourth quartile7.16.04.8
Outcome: high percentage of specialist consultations
Socioeconomic status of the context, fourth quartile5.74.72.8
Supply of specialists, fourth quartile3.43.32.4
Supply of primary care physicians, fourth quartile3.33.01.7