Table 3

 Place effects on healthcare utilisation from spatial mixed models adjusted for individual level characteristics. Each column corresponds to different spatial mixed models, with contextual factors successively measured at the municipality level, at the level of broad areas, and across continuous space. France, 1998 and 2000

Municipality level effects*OR 95% CIBroad area level effects* OR 95% CIEffects measured across continuous space* OR 95% CI
*The odds ratios reported here were adjusted for all individual level factors listed in table 1. †In the model for not having a regular primary care physician, the only contextual variable retained was the socioeconomic status of the context. In the model regarding the percentage of specialist consultations, the three contextual factors were retained (each effect adjusted for the others).
Outcome: no regular primary care physician†
Socioeconomic status of the context (compared with first quartile)
    Second quartile1.03 (0.80 to 1.33)0.97 (0.75 to 1.27)1.02 (0.75 to 1.37)
    Third quartile1.27 (0.99 to 1.63)1.22 (0.93 to 1.59)1.49 (1.10 to 2.00)
    Fourth quartile1.79 (1.38 to 2.31)1.86 (1.40 to 2.46)2.24 (1.61 to 3.13)
Outcome: high percentage of specialist consultations†
Socioeconomic status of the context (compared with first quartile)
    Second quartile1.09 (0.92 to 1.30)1.10 (0.91 to 1.34)1.18 (0.97 to 1.45)
    Third quartile1.30 (1.08 to 1.57)1.20 (0.97 to 1.49)1.38 (1.09 to 1.74)
    Fourth quartile1.50 (1.23 to 1.84)1.17 (0.90 to 1.53)1.62 (1.15 to 2.28)
Supply of specialists (compared with first quartile)
    Second quartile1.02 (0.86 to 1.21)1.20 (0.96 to 1.50)1.40 (1.05 to 1.88)
    Third quartile1.19 (0.93 to 1.53)0.97 (0.71 to 1.33)1.70 (1.08 to 2.67)
    Fourth quartile1.48 (1.05 to 2.09)1.95 (1.14 to 3.33)2.03 (1.13 to 3.67)
Supply of primary care physicians (compared with first quartile)
    Second quartile0.92 (0.77 to 1.09)0.89 (0.72 to 1.11)0.88 (0.66 to 1.18)
    Third quartile0.87 (0.67 to 1.12)1.05 (0.78 to 1.42)0.69 (0.44 to 1.09)
    Fourth quartile0.82 (0.57 to 1.17)0.66 (0.39 to 1.10)0.59 (0.33 to 1.07)