Table 2

 Rate ratios (and 95% CrI*) of suicide in men aged 15–44 years associated with 1 SD increase in levels of each of the area characteristics in multivariable models controlling for the effect of all other single indicators and adjusting for spatial autocorrelation in the residual variability

UnadjustedAdjusted for
All other factorsAll factors except rurality indicators†All factors except rurality indicators and access to a car‡
*CrI, Credible intervals—the Bayesian equivalent of 95% CI—indicate the centiles of the distribution containing 95% of all estimates.
†,‡Controlling for the effect of all other area characteristics apart from (a) the two rurality indicators and (b) proportion of households with no access to a car, respectively.
§These variables were firstly log transformed using the natural logarithm because of their skewed distributions.
¶Percentage reductions in estimates of geographical variability from the estimate observed in baseline models with no explanatory risk factors.
**Estimates (and CI) of the magnitude of unexplained differences in rates based on estimates of the residual variance observed in each model.
Area characteristics
    Single-person households1.15 (1.13 to 1.17)1.14 (1.09 to 1.19)1.14 (1.09 to 1.19)1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)
    Privately renting§1.06 (1.04 to 1.08)1.01 (0.98 to 1.04)1.04 (1.01 to 1.07)1.05 (1.02 to 1.08)
    Population mobility§1.07 (1.05 to 1.08)0.94 (0.91 to 0.97)0.94 (0.91 to 0.97)0.94 (0.91 to 0.97)
    Unmarried population1.14 (1.13 to 1.16)1.09 (1.04 to 1.15)1.08 (1.03 to 1.14)1.05 (1.00 to 1.11)
    Not owner occupied1.14 (1.13 to 1.16)1.00 (0.97 to 1.04)1.05 (1.02 to 1.08)1.04 (1.01 to 1.07)
    No access to car1.18 (1.15 to 1.19)0.96 (0.89 to 1.04)0.85 (0.79 to 0.91)
    Overcrowded§1.10 (1.08 to 1.12)0.99 (0.96 to 1.02)0.98 (0.95 to 1.01)0.97 (0.94 to 1.00)
    Unemployed§1.16 (1.14 to 1.18)1.06 (1.00 to 1.12)1.07 (1.01 to 1.12)1.03 (0.98 to 1.08)
    Lone parents§1.15 (1.13 to 1.17)1.10 (1.06 to 1.14)1.09 (1.05 to 1.13)1.07 (1.03 to 1.11)
    Social class IV and V1.17 (1.15 to 1.19)1.06 (1.03 to 1.10)1.08 (1.05 to 1.12)1.07 (1.04 to 1.10)
    Long-term illness1.15 (1.13 to 1.17)0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)1.03 (0.98 to 1.07)0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)
    Population potential§0.97 (0.95 to 0.98)0.89 (0.85 to 0.94)
    Population density§1.04 (1.02 to 1.06)0.91 (0.87 to 0.94)
Percentage of variability explained¶69%62%58%
    Unexplained differences (CI) in rates**2.2 (1.8 to 2.6)2.3 (1.9 to 2.8)2.5 (2.0 to 2.9)