Fixed effects(Traditional measures of association)    
Mean SBP of the city (intercept)  119 mm Hg  116 mm Hg  116 mm Hg 

β* (95% CI)

β * (95% CI)

β * (95% CI)

Individual level variables    
Age (years)  0.76 (0.70 to 0.82)  0.76 (0.70 to 0.82)  0.76 (0.70 to 0.82) 
Use of blood pressure lowering drugs (yes v no)  0.89 (0.77 to 1.01)  0.88 (0.76 to 1.00)  1.02 (0.88 to 1.16) 
BMI (kg/m^{2})  15.12 (14.43 to 15.81)  15.12 (14.43 to 15.81)  15.12 (14.43 to 15.81) 
Individual low income (low v high)  2.27 (1.72 to 2.82)  2.27 (1.72 to 2.82)  2.26 (1.71 to 2.81) 
Area level variables    
Neighbourhood low income (low v high)   5.23 (3.19 to 7.27)  4.47 (2.49 to 6.45) 
Cross level interactions    
Neighbourhood low income × BMI†    0.35 (0.15 to 0.55) 
Random effects(Multilevel measures of health variation)    
Components of variance 
Variance‡(SE)

Variance‡(SE)

Variance‡(SE)

Neighbourhood intercept variance  27.09 (6.26)  21.11 (4.7)  21.02 (4.9) 
Individual level variance  298.22 (3.34)  298.03 (3.34)  298.02 (3.34) 
BMISBP slope variance  0.11 (0.03)  0.11 (0.03)  0.09 (0.03) 
BMI related individual SBP variance  0.16 (0.08)  0.16 (0.08)  0.16 (0.08) 
Neighbourhood interceptslope covariance  0.99 (0.35)  0.62 (0.29)  0.58 (0.27) 
Individual level covariance  5.24 (0.31)  5.24 (0.31)  5.25 (0.31) 
Proportional change in variance (PCV)  PCV  PCV  PCV 
PCV between neighbourhoods  Ref.  22%  22% 
PCV between individuals  Ref.  0%  0% 
Variance partition coefficient (VPC)  VPC = 0.08  VPC = 0.07  VPC = 0.07 
2×loglikelihood value  211,024  211,006  210,996 