Table 1

 Demographic characteristics of the participants by sex and downsizing status

Men (n = 12240)Women (n = 10319)
Number*%DownsizingNumber*%Downsizing
No (%)Yes (%)No (%)Yes (%)
The p values in bold type are below 0.004 (Bonferoni adjustment); all p values result from Pearson’s χ2 test. *Number of cases varies slightly because of item non-response (0.2%–0.6% per item).
Downsizing
No1049585.7905887.8
Yes172514.1124612.1
Age group (years)
15–29190015.516.410.5179517.418.112.4
30–39433535.535.734.4339432.933.131.8
40–49358329.329.031.5320431.130.634.7
50–59240219.719.023.6191118.518.221.1
p value ⩽ 0.001 0.001
Residency
West Germany1007082.483.079.1809078.478.975.4
East Germany215017.617.020.9221421.521.124.6
p value ⩽ 0.001 0.004
Education
Lower secondary11659.59.88.0118411.511.98.4
Upper secondary711658.258.954.0640962.262.460.7
Post-secondary and tertiary393932.231.338.0271026.325.730.9
p value ⩽ 0.001 0.001
Occupational status
Blue collar584447.848.146.0167016.216.613.2
White collar637652.251.954.0863483.883.486.8
p value ⩽0.107 0.002
Effort-reward imbalance
Low (1–3 quartile)907874.578.252.1776775.779.449.2
High (4 quartile)310925.521.847.9249024.320.650.8
p value ⩽ 0.001 0.002