Table 4

 Early-life indicators of occupation

IndicatorLocation, study designIndicators of SEP measuredCriteria
P, prospectively; R, retrospectively; SEP, socioeconomic position.
Maternal grandfather’s occupationAustralia, Longitudinal Mater—University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy and its Outcomes80PValidity: Father’s occupation is a valid marker of socioeconomic and environmental circumstances in childhood.81–83Information about past occupation could be as important as current occupation given that some occupations are less healthy than others87Relevance: Culturally and historically specific, cohort and period effects likely to exist.51 Cannot readily be used for groups outside the recognised labour force10Reliability:Potentially affected by recall bias Father’s occupation was recalled accurately, reliably and by most respondents Changing coding criteria need to be taken into account for consistent measurement over timeDeconstruction: Not applicable
Maternal and paternal grandfather’s occupationDanish 1958 cohort of men51P
Father’s occupationAustralia, Longitudinal Mater—University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy and its Outcomes80P
Britain, Longitudinal Whitehall Study35R
Danish 1958 cohort of men51P
Finland, Helsinki University Central Hospital Cohort84P
Finland Valmet cohort85R
The Netherlands, Longitudinal Study of Socio-Economic Health Differences58R
Scotland, Glasgow Alumni Cohort86R
Longitudinal West of Scotland Collaborative Study33,37,88–93R
Spain, Cross-sectional study94R
Sweden, Cross-sectional Malmö Diet and Cancer Study82R
Sweden, Cross-sectional Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme28R
USA, Longitudinal Alameda County Study53R
USA, Longitudinal Nurses’ Health Study95P
USA, Cross-sectional National Survey of Midlife Development54R
USA, Longitudinal Normative Aging Study55R
Father’s longest held occupationBritish Women’s Heart and Health Study, cross-sectional38,50,96–99R
British Regional Heart Study, longitudinal100R
Father’s occupation when participant bornBritain Newcastle Thousand Families Cohort Study101–103P
Father’s occupation when participant born and aged 7, 11 and 16 years1958 British Birth Cohort52,77,104–106P
Father’s occupation when participant born and aged 3 and 6 yearsNew Zealand, Longitudinal Christchurch Health and Development Study107P
Father’s occupation when participant bornNew Zealand, Longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study108,109P
Father’s occupation when participant aged 4 years1946 British Birth Cohort71,72,110–112P
Father’s occupation when participant aged 14 yearsBritish Household Panel Survey, cross-sectional113R
Father’s occupation when participant aged 16 yearsUSA, Longitudinal Nurses’ Health Study95R
Mother’s occupationUSA, Cross-sectional National Survey of Midlife Development54R
Parents’ occupation at age 15 yearsSlovakia, Cross-sectional Survey of Adolescents61P
Parents’ occupation when participant aged 5, 10 and 16 years1970 British Birth Cohort77P
Occupation of parents when participant born and aged 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 15 and 26 yearsNew Zealand, Longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study114P
Parents’ occupation when participant aged 10 yearsFinland, Longitudinal Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study66,68–70,115R
Parents’ occupation when participant born and aged 7 yearsUSA, Longitudinal National Collaborative Perinatal Project59,60P
Head of household’s occupation when participant bornSweden, Uppsala Birth Cohort Study116P
Head of household’s occupation when participant aged 5 and 10 yearsBritain Newcastle Thousand Families Cohort Study101–103P
Head of household’s occupation when participant aged 15 yearsUSA National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men73R
Head of household’s occupation when participant aged 10–14 yearsFinland, Longitudinal Census Data Study40,117R
Whether mother worked outside the homeUSA, National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men73R
Father or mother unemployed when they wanted to be workingBritain, Longitudinal Whitehall Study35R
Participant’s occupation at labour force entrySweden, Cross-sectional Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study118R
Participant’s first occupationWest of Scotland, Longitudinal Collaborative Study37,90,91,93R